Whole Pharmacology Classification

Pharmacology is the study of how medicinal substances interact with living systems.

Pharmacology is the study of drugs, their nature, their sources, and their properties, absorption, distribution, biotransformation, elimination, interactions, toxicology, and therapeutic applications.

Pharmacology is the study of the body’s reaction to drugs or Pharmacology is the study of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a drug.

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Here is a list of Pharmacology Classification of drugs which every pharmacist and medical student should know.

We already have a shared pharmacology drug classification chart on our Facebook page many times. But here we will share some authentic classification from various Pharmacology books. The Following is a drug classification for nurses, doctors, and pharmacists.

Pharmacology classification

 

1. Adrenergic Antagonists

Further classified into

a) Alpha Adrenergic Antagonists

They can be classified into three groups;

List of Drugs 

Mainly Alpha 1 antagonists

  • Prazosin
  • Doxazosin
  • Terazosin
  • Tamsulosin
  • Alfuzosin
  • Indoramin
  • Urapidil

Mainly Alpha 2 Antagonists:

  • Yohimbine
  • Tolazoline

Alpha 1 And Alpha 2 Antagonists:

  • Phenoxybenzamine
  • Phentolamine

b) Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists

Beta 1 And Beta 2 Antagonists

  • Propranolol
  • Pindolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Nadolol
  • Carteolol
  • Timolol
  • Sotalol

Mainly Beta 1 Antagonists

  • Acebutolol
  • Atenolol
  • Alprenolol
  • Betaxolol
  • Celiprolol
  • Metoprolol
  • Esmolol
  • Nebivolol

2. Adrenergic Agonists

Direct action

These drugs act directly on one or more adrenergic receptors. According to receptor selectivity, they are two types:

Non-selective: drugs act on one or more receptors; these are:

List of Drugs 

  • Adrenaline (almost all adrenergic receptors).
  • Noradrenaline (acts on α1, α2, β1).
  • Isoprenaline (acts on β1, β2, β3).
  • Dopamine (acts on α1, α2, β1, D1, D2).

Selective: drugs which act on a single receptor only; these are further classified into

List of Drugs

  • α selective & β selective.
  • α1 selective: Phenylephrine, Methoxamine, Midodrine, Oxymetazoline.
  • α2 selective: α-Methyldopa, clonidine, brimonidine.
  • β1 selective: Dobutamine.
  • β2 selective: Salbutamol/Albuterol, Terbutaline, Salmeterol, Formoterol, Pirbuterol. [1]

Indirect action

List of Drugs 

  • Amphetamines
  • Cocaine
  • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
  • Tyramine
  • Nicotine
  • Caffeine
  • Methylphenidate

Mixed action

  • Ephedrine
  • Pseudoephedrine

Pharmacology Classification

3. Cholinergic  Agonists

Direct and indirect-acting Agonists

List of Drugs

1. Direct Acting Agonist Drugs:

Are further divided into two groups

a. Choline Esters

  • Acetylcholine
  • Methacholine
  • Carbachol
  • Bethanechol

b. Cholinomimetic alkaloids

  • Muscarine
  • Nicotine
  • Pilocarpine
  • Lobeline

2. Indirect Acting Drugs:

List of Drugs 

a. Reversibly Acting:

  • Neostigmine
  • Physostigmine
  • Demecarium
  • Pyridostigmine
  • Ambenonium

b. Irreversible Acting:

  • Echothiophate
  • Parathion
  • Malathion
  • Tetraethyl Pyrophosphate

4. Pharmacology Classification of Cholinergic Antagonists

List of Drugs 

Antimuscarinic agents

  • Atropine
  • Benztropine
  • Biperiden
  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Dicyclomine
  • Dimenhydrinate
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Doxepin
  • Doxylamine
  • Glycopyrrolate
  • Ipratropium
  • Orphenadrine
  • Oxitropium
  • Oxybutynin
  • Propantheline bromide
  • Tolterodine
  • Tiotropium
  • Trihexyphenidyl
  • Scopolamine
  • Solifenacin
  • Tropicamide

Antinicotinic agents

  • Bupropion
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Doxacurium
  • Hexamethonium
  • Mecamylamine
  • Tubocurarine

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5. Pharmacology Classification of Antianginal Drugs

List of Drugs 

a) Organic Nitrates

  • Nitroglycerin
  • Isosorbide Dinitrate
  • Isosorbide Mononitrate
  • Amyl nitrite

b) Calcium Channel Blockers

List of Drugs 

Further Divided Into

1. Dihydropyridine

  • Nifedipine
  • Nicardipine
  • Amlodipine
  • Nisoldipine
  • Nitrendipine
  • Nimodipine

2. Miscellaneous Drugs

  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem
  • Bepridil

c) Beta-Blockers

Further Divided Into

1. ß 1 + ß 2 Antagonists

  • Propranolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Sotalol
  • Pindolol
  • Timolol

2. ß 1 Selective Antagonist

  • Metoprolol
  • Atenolol
  • Esmolol
  • Acebutolol
  • Betaxolol

6. Drugs used in Congestive cardiac failure

Drugs Used For Congestive Cardiac Failure are,

1) Drugs used to decrease preload:

  • Diuretics
  • Organic nitrate

2) Drugs which decrease afterload

  • Hydralazine
  • Minoxidil

3) Drugs which decrease both preload and afterload:

  • Captopril
  • Enalapril
  • Lisinopril
  • Fosinopril
  • Quinapril

4) Positive inotropic drugs:
They can be further divided into three groups;

A. Cardiac glycosides:

  • Digoxin
  • Digitoxin
  • Ouabain
  • Lanatoside.

2) Phosphodiesterase inhibitors:

  • Inamrinonone (Amrinone)
  • Milrinone

3.Sympathomimetics:

  • Dopamine
  • Dobutamine
  • Depoxamine
  • Xamoterol

7. Pharmacology Classification  of Antiplatelet Drugs

Antiplatelet List of drugs include:

  • Anagrelide
  • Aspirin
  • clopidogrel
  • prasugrel
  • ticagrelor
  • tirofiban
  • vorapaxar
  • dipyridamole

8.  Anticoagulant Drugs

List of drugs in this class include:

  • warfarin
  • dabigatran
  • edoxaban
  • rivaroxaban
  • apixaban

Pharmacology drugs classification

9. Diuretics

Thiazides diuretics

List of Drugs 

  • Chlorothiazide
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Indapamide
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Methyclothiazide
  • Metolazone

Loop diuretics

List of Drugs 

  • Bumetanide
  • Furosemide
  • Ethacrynate
  • Torsemide

Potassium-sparing diuretics

  • Amiloride hydrochloride
  • spironolactone
  • triamterene


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10. Pharmacology Classification of Statins

Statins that are approved for use in the U.S. include:

List of Drugs 

  • Atorvastatin
  • Fluvastatin
  • Lovastatin
  • Pravastatin
  • Rosuvastatin
  • Simvastatin
  • Pitavastatin

11.Thrombolytic Drug

Thrombolytic List of Drugs  — include:

  • Anistreplase
  • Reteplase
  • Streptokinase, kabikinase
  • t-PA (class of drugs that includes Activase)
  • TNKase (tenecteplase)
  • Abbokinase, Kinlytic (rokinase)

12. Pharmacology Classification of Sedative Hypnotic

1. Sedative Anxiolytic Drugs 

Benzodiazepines List of Drugs 

  • Alprazolam
  • Bromazepam
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Clonazepam
  • Clorazepate
  • Diazepam
  • Flurazepam
  • Lorazepam
  • Oxazepam
  • Temazepam
  • Triazolam

Barbiturates

barbiturates include:

  • Phenobarbital
  • Mephobarbital
  • Amobarbital sodium
  • Butabarbital sodium
  • Secobarbital sodium

2. Non Sedative 

  • Buspirone
  • Gepirone
  • Ipsapirone
  • Tandospirone

13. Antidepressants

List of Drugs

1. Tricyclic Antidepressant

  • Amitriptyline
  • Amoxapine
  • Desipramine
  • Doxepin
  • Imipramine
  • Nortriptyline
  • Protriptyline
  • Trimipramine

2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

  • Citalopram
  • Escitalopram
  • Paroxetine
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Sertraline

3. Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

  • Desvenlafaxine
  • Duloxetine
  • Levomilnacipran
  • Milnacipran
  • Venlafaxine

4. Serotonin modulators and stimulators (SMS)

  • Vilazodone
  • Vortioxetine

5. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs)

  • Reboxetine
  • Teniloxazine
  • Viloxazine

6. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

  • Isocarboxazid
  • Phenelzine
  • Selegiline
  • Tranylcypromine

14. Antipsychotic Drugs

  • Aripiprazole
  • Asenapine
  • Cariprazine
  • Clozapine
  • Lurasidone
  • Olanzapine
  • Quetiapine
  • Risperidone
  • Ziprasidone

15. Anti epileptic Drugs

Absence seizures (including typical and atypical absences):

List of Drugs

  • Acetazolamide
  • Clonazepam
  • Ethosuximide
  • Lamotrigine
  • Sodium valproate

Atonic seizures:

  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Sodium valproate

Catamenial seizures (menstrual-related):

  • Acetazolamide
  • Clobazam

Cluster seizures:

  • Clobazam

Episodic disorders:

  • Acetazolamide

Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy or SMEI):

  • Stiripentol

Focal (partial) seizures:

  • Acetazolamide
  • Carbamazepine
  • Clobazam
  • Clonazepam
  • Eslicarbazepine acetate
  • Gabapentin
  • Lacosamide
  • Lamotrigine
  • Levetiracetam
  • Oxcarbazepine
  • Perampanel
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Pregabalin
  • Primidone
  • Retigabine
  • Sodium valproate
  • Tiagabine
  • Topiramate
  • Vigabatrin
  • Zonisamide

Focal (partial) seizures with secondary generalisation:

  • Gabapentin
  • Lacosamide
  • Levetiracetam
  • Perampanel
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Pregabalin
  • Primidone
  • Retigabine
  • Sodium valproate
  • Tiagabine
  • Topiramate
  • Vigabatrin
  • Zonisamide

Focal seizures with secondary generalised tonic clonic seizures:

  • Carbamazepine
  • Eslicarbazepine acetate
  • Lamotrigine
  • Oxcarbazepine

Infantile spasms:

  • Nitrazepam
  • Sodium valproate
  • Vigabatrin

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (seizures related to):

  • Levetiracetam

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (seizures related to):

  • Lamotrigine
  • Rufinamide
  • Topiramate

Myoclonic seizures:

  • Clonazepam
  • Ethosuximide
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Piracetam
  • Sodium valproate

Tonic seizures:

  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Sodium valproate

Tonic clonic seizures:

  • Acetazolamide
  • Carbamazepine
  • Clobazam
  • Clonazepam
  • Eslicarbazepine acetate
  • Lamotrigine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Sodium valproate
  • Topiramate

West Syndrome with Tuberous Sclerosis:

  • Vigabatrin

16. Pharmacology drugs classification Anesthetic Drugs

List of Drugs 

Local anesthetics

  • Procaine
  • Amethocaine
  • Lidocaine (also known as lignocaine)
  • Prilocaine
  • Bupivacaine
  • Levobupivacaine
  • Ropivacaine
  • Mepivacaine
  • Dibucaine
  • Cocaine

General anesthetics

Inhaled agents

  • Desflurane
  • Enflurane
  • Halothane
  • Isoflurane
  • Methoxyflurane
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Sevoflurane
  • Xenon
  • Cocaine

Intravenous agents (non-opioid)

  • Barbiturates
  • Amobarbital (trade name: Amytal)
  • Methohexital (trade name: Brevital)
  • Thiamylal (trade name: Surital)
  • Thiopental
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Diazepam
  • Lorazepam
  • Midazolam
  • Etomidate
  • Ketamine
  • Propofol

17. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

List of Drugs 

  • Aspirin
  • Celecoxib
  • Diclofenac
  • Diflunisal
  • Etodolac
  • Ibuprofen
  • Ketoprofen
  • Ketorolac
  • Nabumetone
  • Naproxen
  • Oxaprozin
  • Piroxicam

18. Disease-Modifying Anti Rheumatic Drugs

List of Drugs 

a) Immunosuppressive Drugs

  • Methotrexate
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Azathioprine
  • Chlorambucil
  • Cyclosporine
  • Mycophenolate mofetil
  • Leflunomide

b) Gold Compounds

  • Aurothiomalate
  • Aurothioglucose
  • Auranofin

c) Aminoquinolines

  • Chloroquine
  • Hydroxychloroquine alpha

19. Antigout Drugs

Further Divided Into

Drugs For the treatment of Acute Attack of Gout

  • Colchicine
  • NSAIDs

Drugs For the Prevention Of Gout

  • Uricosuric Drugs ( Probenecid, Sulphinopyrazine
  • Inhibitors of Uric Acid synthesis (allopurinol, Febuxostat

20. Anti-migraine Drugs

Drugs For The Treatment OF Acute Attack

1. 5-HT1 Agonists

  • Sumatriptan
  • Zolmitriptan
  • Naratriptan
  • Rizatriptan

2. Other Drugs

  • Ergotamine
  • Dihydroergotamine
  • NSAIDs
  • Paracetamol
  • Opioids

 

Prophylactic Drugs

Drugs in this class are;

  • Propranolol
  • Aspirin
  • Pizotifen
  • Cyproheptadine
  • Amitriptyline
  • Imipramine
  • Fluoxetine
  • Sertraline
  • Methysergide
  • Flunarizine
  • Clonidine

21. Antimicrobial Drugs

1. Beta-Lactam Antimicrobials

List of Drugs In This class Include

  • Penicillin
  • Cephalosporins
  • Monobactams
  • Carbapenems

Penicillin

Narrow Spectrum Penicillin

Further Classified into two

a) Penicillinase Sensitive Penicillin

  • Penicillin G (Benzyl Penicillin)
  • Penicillin V

b) Penicillinase Resistant Penicillin

  • Nafcillin
  • Oxacillin
  • Cloxacillin
  • Dicloxacillin
  • Flucloxacillin
  • Methicillin

c) Broad Spectrum Penicillin

This is further divided into two

1. Aminopenicillin

  • Ampicillin
  • Amoxicillin
  • Bacampicillin
  • Talampicillin

2. Antipseudomonal Penicillin

They are further divided into two

1. Carboxypenicillin

  • Carbenicillin
  • Ticarcillin

2. Ureidopenicillins

  • Azlocillin
  • Mezlocillin
  • Piperacillin

2. Fluoroquinolones ;

  • (A)First Generation e.g Nalidixic acid
  • (B)Second Generation e.g Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, and ofloxacin.
    Norfloxacin doesn’t absorb very well and they are not used most commonly While ciprofloxacin is the most commonly used drug in this class.
  • (C)Third Generation  E.g Levofloxacin
  • (D)Fourth Generation: Moxifloxacin

3. Cephalosporins

First-Generation Cephalosporins

  • cefadroxil
  • cefazedone
  • cefazolin
  • cephalexin
  • cephalothin
  • cephradine
  • cephaloridine
  • cephapirin

Second-Generation Cephalosporins

  • cefaclor
  • cefamandole
  • cefprozil
  • cefuroxime
  • loracarbef
  • cephalosporins

Third-Generation Cephalosporins

  • cefcapene
  • cefdinir
  • cefditoren
  • cefetamet
  • cefixime
  • cefmenoxime
  • cefoperazone
  • cefotaxime
  • cefpiramide
  • cefpodoxime
  • cefsulodin
  • ceftibuten
  • ceftizoxime
  • ceftriaxone

Fourth-Generation Cephalosporins

  • cefepime
  • cefluprenam
  • cefozopran
  • cefpirome
  • cefquinome

3. Sulfa Drugs

List of Drugs in this class include:

  • Co-Trimoxazole
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
  • Trimethoprim
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Sulfisoxazole

5. Antitubercular Drugs

“first line” drugs

  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampicin
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Ethambutol
  • and Streptomycin

Second Line Drugs

  • Para aminosalicylic Acid
  • Amikacin
  • Capreomycin
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Clofazimine
  • Cycloserine
  • Ethionamide
  • Levofloxacin
  • Rifabutin
  • Rifapentine

6. Macrolide

Macrolide antibiotics are:

  • Azithromycin
  • Clarithromycin
  • Erythromycin
  • Telithromycin
  • Spiramycin

22. Laxative Drugs

Osmotic laxatives include the following:

  • Lactulose.
  • Glycerin.
  • Polyethylene glycol and electrolytes.
  • Glycerin rectal.
  • Polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution.
  • Polyethylene glycol powder.
  • Sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate.
  • Polyethylene glycol/electrolytes/sodium ascorbate/ascorbic acid.
  • Milk of magnesia,
  • Magnesium citrate,
  • Sorbitol.

23. Antidiabetic Drugs

These include:

  • Biguanides like metformin.
  • Meglitinides like nateglinide and repaglinide
  • Sulfonylureas such as glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, gliclazide, and tolazamide.
  • Thiazolidinediones (Tzd) such as pioglitazone, Actosgeneric and rosiglitazone.
  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors like Acarbose.
  • Dopamine agonists such as Bromocriptine.

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References

  • The need of a uniform drug classification in textbooks of pharmacology [Internet]. [Cited 27 June 2020]. Available from:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4689032/
  • Lippincott Illustrated Reviews [Internet]. [Cited 27 June 2020].

 

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19 thoughts on “Whole Pharmacology Classification”

  1. Mohammad Arafat

    Very good description ?
    But how to download this article or book? Please send me link to download

  2. Talha Farooq

    A brief and well documented classification…✌?

  3. Ezeani Evaristus Chuks

    Very impressive, thank you very much.

  4. DrDinesh Goordyal

    Impressive classification …You have done a very good job Thanks

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