Insulin Glargine: Uses, Side Effects, Dosage

Insulin

Highlights

  • Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Insulin glargine is a long-acting insulin that starts to work several hours after injection and keeps working evenly for 24 hours.
  • Insulin is used to improve blood sugar control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus. Some brands of this medicine are for use only in adults. Carefully follow all instructions for the brand of insulin glargine you are using.
  • Insulin is also used to treat type 1 diabetes in adults and children who are at least 6 years old.
  • Insulin glargine is used to treat type 2 diabetes in adults.
  • Insulin works the same way as natural human insulin, but it’s action lasts longer. It helps diabetic patients regulate glucose or sugar in the body. Insulin glargine works by promoting movement of sugar from blood into body tissues and also stops sugar production in liver. Insulin glargine is man-made insulin that mimics the actions of human insulin.
  • Insulin, marketed under the names Lantus, among others, is a long-acting insulin analogue, given once daily to help control the blood sugarlevel of those with diabetes.

Mechanism Of Action:

Insulin glargine binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of 2 extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor autophosphorylates and phosphorylates numerous intracellular substrates like insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and gab 1. Activation of those proteins results in the activation of downstream signal molecules as well as PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC), each of that play important roles in metabolism. insulinglargine is totally soluble at pH 4, the pH of administered solution, and has low solubility at physiological pH 7.4. Upon subcuteous injection, the solution is neutralised leading to the formation of microprecipitates. small amounts of insulin glargine are released from microprecipitates giving the drug a comparatively constant concentration over time profile over 24 hours with no pronounced peak. This release mechanism permits the drug to mimic basal hormone levels within the body.

Side effects of Insulin Glargine

Common side effects of insulin glargine are:

Decreased blood sugar and injection site pain
Water retention in the joints and weight gain
Local allergic reactions that may occur at the injection sites are:

  • Itching
  • Irritation
  • Redness
  • Rash
  • Long term use of insulin glargine can lead to thickening of fat tissues at the injection site.

Severe allergic reactions are:

  • Swelling under the skin
  • Bronchospasm
  • Very low blood pressure.
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