Co amoxiclav:Uses, Side Effects, Mechanism,Dosage

Co-amoxiclav is a mixture Of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The first ingredient In co-amoxiclav is amoxicillin: a penicillin antibiotic that treats infection by killing the bacteria responsible for the infection. Some bacteria are able to produce a chemical that makes amoxicillin less effective.

The second ingredient, clavulanic acid, stops this from happening. Clavulanic acid stops the chemical produced by the bacteria from working, and this allows the amoxicillin to kill the bacteria.

Co-amoxiclav Uses:

Co-amoxiclav is used to treat infections caused by bacteria, such as the following:

  • Ear, nose, or throat infections, eg  sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media.
  • Chest infections, e.g, pneumonia, bronchitis.
  • Skin and soft tissue infections, eg cellulitis, animal bites.
  • Urinary tract infections kidney infections, in particular recurrent cystitis.
  • Dental abscesses.
  • Bone or joint infections, eg osteomyelitis.
  • Genital infections, including those following childbirth or abortion.
  • Preventing infections following surgery (by injection).
  • Abdominal infections, eg peritonitis.
  • Pyelonephritis.

Mechanism Of Action :

  • Co-amoxiclav is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that kills a wide variety of bacteria that cause a wide variety of commonly-occurring infections. it has always reserved for treating infections caused by bacteria that are immune to amoxicillin.
  • Co-amoxiclav is a Combination of clavulanic acid And amoxicillin. Amoxicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic, and clavulanic acid is a Drug that stops bacteria from inactivating the amoxicillin.
  • Amoxicillin works by interfering with the ability of a bacterium to form cell walls. The cell walls of bacteria are important for their survival. They keep unwanted substances from coming into their cells and stop the contents of their cells from leaking out. Amoxil impairs the bonds that hold the bacterial cell wall together. this enables holes to appear within the cell walls and kills the bacterium.
  • Certain bacteria are immune to penicillin-type antibiotics, as a result of they have developed the power to produce defensive chemicals known as beta-lactamases. These interfere with the structure of penicillin-type antibiotics and stop them from operating.
  • Clavulanic Acid is a semisynthetic beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Streptomyces that stops the bacterium from inactivating the amoxicillin, therefore increasing the range of bacterium that amoxicillin will kill.

Co-amoxiclav Side Effects:

  • Steven-Johnson Syndrome
  • Hepatitis
  • Exfoliative dermatitis
  • Cholestatic Jaundice
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Convulsions With high dose.

Co-amoxiclav Dosage

Dose According To Weight Of Patient

  • Adults and children ≥ 40 kg
  • One 500 mg/125 mg dose is taken three times a day.
  • Children < 40 kg
  • 20 mg/5 mg/kg/day to 60 mg/15 mg/kg/day given in three divided doses.

Doses According To Age Of Patient

  • Dosage for adults (including the elderly) and children over 12:
  • The usual dose is 375mg three times a day, preferably every 8 hours, for a maximum of 14 days.
  • For more severe infections:
  • One 625mg tablet three times a day.
  • For dental infections:
  • The usual dose is 375mg three times a day, preferably every 8 hours, for 5 days.
  • The dose for people with severe liver or kidney problems may be less than these doses.
  • For Children 1 month to 1 one year Use 0.25ml/Kg of 125/31 suspension every 8 hours. If the infection is severe double the dose.
  • For Age 1-6 years Use 5ml of 125/31 suspension every 8 hours.
  • For Age 6-12 use 5 ml of 250/62 suspension every 8 hours if the infection is severe double the dose.
  • Neonates 0.25ml/Kg of 125/31 suspension every 8 hours

 

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