Ipratropium is a muscarinic antagonist structurally related to atropine however typically considered safer and more effective for inhalation use.
- It’s offered as a nasal spray, pressurised inhalation solution called a metered dose inhaler (MDI), and inhalation solution given through a nebulizer machine.
- It is used to control and stop symptoms (wheezing and shortness of breath) caused by ongoing lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD which includes bronchitis and emphysema) and also the common cold
- Use With Cautions In those who have difficulty passing urine, for example men with enlarged prostate (prostatic hypertrophy) or individuals with an obstruction of the bladder ,Glaucoma and individuals vulnerable to narrow-angle glaucoma And cystic fibrosis.
Ipratropium Mechanism Of action
Ipratropium works within the lungs, where it blocks receptors known as muscarinic receptors that are found on the muscle surrounding the airways. A natural chemical referred to as acetylcholine usually acts on these receptors, causing the muscle within the airways to contract and also the airways to narrow.
Ipratropium blocks the muscarinic receptors within the lungs and thus stops the action of acetylcholine on them. this permits the muscle around the airways to relax and also the airways to open. This makes it easier for individuals with bronchial asthma or COPD to breathe.
Therapeutic indications And Doses
- Ipratropium bromide is indicated for the treatment of reversible bronchospasm related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Dose: For treatment of acute bronchospasm in adults and childrens over 12 years is 500 micrograms.
- Ipratropium bromide is indicated, when used concomitantly with inhaled beta2-agonists, for treatment of reversible airways obstruction as in acute and chronic bronchial asthma.
Dose:Children 0 – 5 years of age (for treatment of acute bronchial asthma only):125 – 250 micrograms (i.e. half to one} vial of 250 micrograms in 1ml) up to a total daily dose of 1 mg (4 vials).
Some of the more common side effects of ipratropium include:
- Pharyngitis (sore throat)
- Upper respiratory tract infection, such as the common cold
- Nasal irritation
- Nasal dryness
SERIOUS SIDE EFFECTS
Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:
Allergic reactions. Symptoms can include:
- Blurred vision
- Eye pain
- Skin rash
- Swelling of your lips, tongue, throat, or face
- Trouble breathing or swallowing