Moxifloxacin is a long-acting fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic.
- It is the most potent fluoroquinolone against M. tuberculosis.
- It is effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, and other Gram-positive bacteria, including beta-lactam / macrolide-resistant and anaerobic.
- It is also used for infections of the skin and stomach.
- Moxifloxacin is also used for the prevention and treatment of plague (a serious infection that can be deliberately spread as part of a Bioterrorangriffs).
- soft tissue infections
- Moxifloxacin can be used to treat bronchitis and sinusitis, but should not be used for this condition when other treatment options are available.
Mechanism Of Action
The bactericidal action of moxifloxacin inhibited the enzymes of topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme involved in the replication, transcription, and repair of bacterial DNA. Topoisomerase IV is an enzyme known to play a key role in the distribution of chromosomal DNA during bacterial cell division.
The most common side effects of Moxifloxacin are:
- A headache
Serious side effects and their symptoms may include:
- Hepatic Insufficiency.
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome. This is a serious and potentially fatal rash.
- Kidney failure.
- Peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms usually start in the hands and feet and spread to the arms and legs
- Strong diarrhea. These symptoms persist after you stop taking the medicine.
- Cardiac arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes (irregular heartbeat). This medication can turn your heart rhythm into an irregular heart rhythm that puts your life at risk.
- Tendon rupture. Your Achilles tendon is most likely to break.
- Joint and muscle pain
- Increased sensitivity to the sun, which can lead to sunburn.
Moxifloxacin during pregnancy
The FDA categorizes safety-based drugs for use during pregnancy. Five categories – A, B, C, D, and X – are used to rank the potential risks to the unborn child if a drug is taken during pregnancy.
Moxifloxacin falls into category C. In animal studies, pregnant animals received this drug and some babies were born with problems. There were no well-controlled studies in humans. Therefore, this drug can be used if the potential benefits to the mother outweigh the potential risks to the unborn child.
Dose Of Moxifloxacin
- The usual oral dose for adults is 400 mg once daily
- The usual intravenous dose in adults is 400 mg once daily for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, complicated skin, and soft tissue infection.
- The duration of treatment is 7-14 days for community-acquired pneumonia and 5-10 days for exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, 14 days in the pelvis, an inflammatory disease and 7 days for sinusitis and 7-21 days for complicated infections of the skin.