Metronidazole is a bactericidal drug.Available formulations -oral, intravenous, intravaginal, and topical.Brand Name Of Metronidazole is Flagyl.
Mechanism of action
The drug affects DNA replication by Blocking the production of nucleic acid. The activity of metronidazole against amoebae, Trichomonas, and Giardia is also likely to be attributable to disruption of existing DNA and inhibition of its synthesis in those organisms.Due to this reason, Bacteria can’t survive.
Indications With Doses
Flagyl (Metronidazole) is an antibiotic that is used to treat a wide variety of infections. It works by stopping the growth of certain bacteria and parasites.They May be used to treat;
1. Flagyl is Used to treat bacterial vaginosis.
The usual dose is 400-500 mg twice a day for 5-7 days Or 2 grams as a single dose.
2.Also Used to Treat Amebiasis
In Acute Intestinal Amebiasis (Acute Amebic Dysentery) Usual Dose is 750 mg orally 3 times a day for 5 to 10 days
And For Amebic Liver Abscess The Usual Dose Should be 500 to 750 mg orally 3 times a day for 5 to 10 days
3. Metronidazole in combination with other agents is used for Eradicating Helicobacter pylori bacteria from the gut in people with peptic ulcers.
Bismuth quadruple therapy: A Dose of 250 mg orally 4 times a day clarithromycin-based triple therapy: A dose of 500 mg orally twice a day.Duration of therapy is 10 to 14 days pressure sores and leg ulcers that are infected with anaerobic bacteria.
4. Pressure sores and leg ulcers that are infected with anaerobic bacteria.
Children 8 weeks-12 years: 20-30mg/kg/day as a single dose or divided into 7.5mg/kg every 8 hours for 7 days.
Children under 8 weeks: 15mg/kg/day as a single dose or divided into 7.5mg/kg every 12 hours.
5. Painful inflammation and ulcers of the gums (ulcerative gingivitis).
Adults and children over 10 years: 200mg three times a day.
6. Bacterial dental infections, eg dental abscesses.
Extended-release Tablets: 750 mg orally once a day for 7 consecutive days
7. Bacterial infections in the abdomen (peritonitis).
In Case Of oral administration Usual Dose Is 7.5 mg/kg orally every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days.
In Case of Intravenous administration Usual Loading dose is 15 mg/kg IV once infused over 1 hour and then Maintenance dose is 7.5 mg/kg IV infused over 1 hour every 6 hours For 7 to 10 daysAbscess in the pelvic cavity, usually a result of an abdominal infection.
8. Bacterial infections of bone (osteomyelitis).
In Case Of Intravenous Dose, Loading dose Of 15 mg/kg IV once infused over 1 hour Then Maintenance dose Of 7.5 mg/kg IV infused over 1 hour every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days.Don’t Exceed 4 g per day.
In Case Of Oral Dose Immediate-release capsules and tablets 7.5 mg/kg orally every 6 hours For 7 to 10 days.Don’t Exceed 4 g per day.
9. Used For The Treatment Of Liver Abscess
In Case Of Intravenous administration, Loading dose Should be 15 mg/kg IV once infused over 1 hour
Then A Maintenance dose Of 7.5 mg/kg IV infused over 1 hour every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days
In Case Of Oral Administration, Immediate-release capsules and tablets 7.5 mg/kg orally every 6 hours
This antibiotic treats only certain bacterial and parasitic infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using an antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.
Metronidazole side effects
More common side effects
The more common side effects that can occur include:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Metallic taste
- Loss of appetite
- Cramping in your stomach area
Serious side effects
nervous system effects, including seizures and encephalopathy (abnormal brain function). Symptoms can include:
- Convulsions (sudden movements caused by tightening of your muscles)
- Ataxia (loss of control of body movements)
Warnings and precautions
Talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse before taking Metronidazole tablets:
- if you are in the 2nd and 3rd Trimester of pregnancy
- if you have ever suffered from any liver disease
- if you have kidney disease, particularly if you require dialysis treatments
- if you have epilepsy or have ever had fits
- if you have been exposed to any sexually transmitted disease.
- if you have porphyria (a genetic disease that can cause skin blisters, abdominal pain and brain/nervous system disorders)
- if you have any nervous system disorders
- if you have any disorder of the blood.