- Metoclopramide is an antiemetic as well as a stimulant to the motility of the upper git.it is also used for Preventing nausea and vomiting caused by radiotherapy,anti-cancer chemotherapy, surgery, Relieving nausea and vomiting, and helping painkillers to be absorbed in a migraine.Treating nausea, vomiting, and hiccups in palliative care.
- Metoclopramide inhibits gastric smooth muscle relaxation produced by dopamine, so increasing the cholinergic response of the gi smooth muscle. It accelerates intestinal transit and gastric evacuation by preventing relaxation of gastric body and increasing the phasic activity of antrum. at the same time, this action is in the middle of relaxation of the upper small intestine, leading to an improved coordination between the body and antrum of the stomach and therefore the upper small intestine. This drug additionally decreases reflux into the esophagus by increasing the resting pressure of the lower passage anatomical sphincter and improves acid clearance from the esophagus by increasing amplitude of esophageal peristaltic contractions. Metoclopramide’s dopamine antagonist action raises the threshold of activity within the receptor trigger zone and reduces the input from afferent visceral nerves. Studies have additionally shown that high doses of metoclopramide will antagonize 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors within the peripheral nervous system in animals.
- The more common side effects of metoclopramide will include: sleepiness, confusion, dizziness, headache, trouble sleeping, restlessness, exhaustion while Serious side effects and their symptoms will include the following: hypersensitivity, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (nervous system disorder), parkinsonism (symptoms kind of like those caused by Parkinson’s disease), Depression and suicide, dyskinesia, a movement disorder that may be permanent and Hyperprolactinemia (increased levels of the secretion prolactin).
- The usual dose of metoclopramide for treating GERD is 10-15 mg four times daily, half-hour before every meal.Gastroparesis is treated with 10 mg administered orally four times daily, half-hour before every meal and at bedtime.
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