Drugs Used in Asthma

Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Infection causes recurring phases of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing frequently happens at night or early in the morning.

Asthma drugs typically fall into two classes: bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. They function by targeting the two chief indicators of asthma.

Bronchodilators aim the tightened muscles in your lungs which are limiting your airways. These medications help loosen the lung muscles. This widens your airways and makes it much easier for you to breathe. Bronchodilators are used for quick relief from allergies.

Anti-inflammatory brokers aim inflammation in your lungs. They lessen lung swelling and irritation, which will help enhance your breathing. Anti-inflammatory drugs are used for everyday care to help avoid asthma symptoms.
Quick-relief medicines

Asthma medications are further split between quick-relief and long-term drugs. All quick-relief drugs are bronchodilators.

Drugs Used in Asthma

Long-term asthma control drugs are divided into these groups.

These anti inflammatory drugs would be the most powerful and most commonly prescribed long-term asthma medication. Examples of these medications include:

Oral Corticosteroids 

Corticosteroids are systemic medications, so that they affect your whole body. They are sometimes used as a treatment for acute asthma symptoms. These medications are anti-inflammatories, and they operate by relieving inflammation and swelling in your airways. Oral corticosteroids are taken orally.

Examples of these medications include:

  • Prednisone
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Hydrocortisone

The common side effects of the drugs include:

Weight gain
elevated blood glucose levels
difficulty sleeping
slow wound healing

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may cause unwanted effects which might be serious. Thus, these drugs should only be utilized for short-term therapy. Examples of severe unwanted effects include:

  • Peptic ulcers
  • osteoporosis
  • sugar intolerance
  • weight reduction

Inhaled Corticosteroids

Drugs in this class are

  • beclomethasone
  • budesonide
  • flunisolide
  • fluticasone
  • mometasone

Side Effects include

  • Throat irritation
  • Nosebleed
  • Aggravation
  • Nose aggravation

Rare but serious side effects may include:

  • Bronchospasm
  • vision issues
  • Raised blood pressure in the uterus
  • Diminished development in children

Long-acting beta antagonists

They are utilized to prevent asthma attacks and are generally taken twice daily with an inhaler. They are consistently used together with an inhalable corticosteroid. These medications are fast-acting and will provide relief for up to 12 hours.

Examples of these medications include:

  • formoterol
  • salmeterol

The common side effects of the medications include headache and muscular pain. Rare but serious side effects may include bronchospasm and throat spasm.

Combination inhalers

Combination inhalers are typical prescriptions for asthma. Combinations available in the USA include:

  • budesonide and formoterol
  • fluticasone and salmetero

The common side effects of the drugs include throat and headache disease. Rare but serious side effects may include heart arrhythmias, higher blood pressure, and bronchospasm.

Leukotriene modifiers are deemed anti-inflammatory medications, but they operate differently in corticosteroids. They are available in pill form and operate by blocking the actions of leukotrienes. Leukotrienes are chemicals in your lungs which cause the air passages to constrict. They also cause your lungs to earn extra mucus.

example of leukotriene modifiers contain:

  • Montelukast
  • zafirlukast
  • zileuton

The common side effects of the medications include headache, stomach pain, and muscular pain. More serious side effects may include liver damage, blood disorders, as well as seizures.

Methylxanthines are bronchodilators which are also believed to get some anti inflammatory consequences. These medications come as tablets.

These medications are seldom prescribed. This is only because they need close monitoring to be certain the quantity of medication in your body remains within a narrow selection. In case the amount goes over this range, it places you in danger of severe side effects like heart arrhythmias and seizures.

The common side effects of the drugs include:

  • Aggravation
  • difficulty sleeping
  • nausea
  • Vomiting

Immunomodulators Drugs Used in Asthma

Immunomodulators are also known as biologics. They impact your immune system, blocking chemicals that cause asthma attacks. These medications are generally only prescribed for men and women who can not control their asthma symptoms along with different kinds of asthma medicines.

All these drugs may cause various side effects, however, the common ones include:

More severe side effects may include:

  • Hypersensitivity responses, which may comprise anaphylaxis
  • bronchospasm
  • heart attack
  • stroke

Quick Relief Drugs Used in Asthma

Quick-relief drugs can also be referred to as rescue treatment. They are utilized to offer quick relief from asthma flare-ups or even more serious attacks.

These inhaled drugs deliver near-instant relief during an asthma attack, and also the aid may last for many hours. Short-acting beta agonists are the medication of choice for treating exercise-induced strikes.

The common side effects of the drugs include:

  • Shakiness
  • Excitability
  • Aggravation
  • Throat irritation
  • Rapid heart rate

In rare and severe cases, these medications can lead to heart arrhythmias.

Anticholinergics Drugs Used in Asthma

Anticholinergics are another type of fast-acting, inhalable bronchodilators which could offer rapid relief from an asthma attack.

The common side effects of anticholinergics include:

Rare but serious side effects include bronchospasms, that can be muscle spasms in the lungs that narrow your airways. Unusual side effects also have worsening of preexisting heart arrhythmias.
Extended asthma control drugs

They are utilized to avoid asthma symptoms as opposed to treat sudden asthma attacks. For long-term therapy, your physician may prescribe an anti-inflammatory drug, a bronchodilator, or even a blend of both.

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