Manzoor (Pharm D)

A Professional Pharmacist, a passionate blogger, and fountainhead of DrugsBank. You can learn more about Manzoor here

Top 100 Drugs Of Choice For Different Diseases

In the world of medicine, the term “drug of choice” holds two distinct meanings: one refers to an illicit substance that individuals may become addicted to, while the other pertains to the primary pharmaceutical treatment for a specific medical condition. This comprehensive guide will focus on the latter, providing a meticulously curated list of drugs that serve as the first-line treatment for a wide range of diseases. Our selection is based on scientific research and expert recommendations. We have divided these drugs into several categories, each tailored to address unique medical needs. Category 1: Drugs of Choice During Pregnancy During pregnancy, choosing the proper medication is crucial for the health of both the mother and the baby. Here are the drugs of choice for various conditions during pregnancy: Chloroquine: The preferred treatment for malaria during pregnancy. [1] Alpha-Methyldopa: An essential drug for managing hypertension during pregnancy. Heparin: Used for anticoagulation to prevent blood clot formation in pregnant women. Labetalol: A go-to option to manage hypertensive crises in expectant mothers. Acetaminophen: The analgesic drug of choice. Phenobarbitone: Prescribed for epilepsy in pregnant women. Doxylamine & Pyridoxine: Effective for managing nausea during pregnancy. Category 2: Drugs of Choice for Infections Infections require targeted treatment to ensure a swift recovery and prevent complications. Here are the drugs of choice for various infectious conditions: Penicillin G: A primary choice for septicemia, meningitis, pericarditis, endocarditis, and severe pneumonia. Ampicillin: Ideal for treating Listeria and Enterococcus faecalis infections. Vancomycin: The top pick for MRSA, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus faecium infections. Erythromycin: Recommended for Corynebacterium infections. Doxycycline: Effective against Bacillus anthracis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia, and Rickettsiae. Cotrimoxazole: The drug of choice for Nocardia infections. Azithromycin: Preferable for Hemophilus ducreyi and Mycoplasma infections. Ceftriaxone: Used to combat Proteus, E. coli, and Salmonella infections. Ciprofloxacin (Ciproxin): The go-to choice for urinary tract infections. Alternative options include nitrofurantoin, oral cephalosporins, or fosfomycin. [2] Metronidazole: An effective treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial infections, including antibiotic-associated colitis. Ceftazidime: A trusted option for Burkholderia pseudomallei infections. Category 3: Drugs of Choice for Seizures Managing seizures requires precise drug selection. Here are the drugs of choice for different types of seizures: Valproate: Effective for tonic seizures, absence seizures, grand mal (GTCS), clonic seizures, atonic seizures, and myoclonic seizures. [4] Carbamazepine: Recommended for partial seizures. Vigabatrin: The drug of choice for infantile spasms with tuberous sclerosis. ACTH: An essential treatment for infantile spasms. Lorazepam (IV): Used to manage status epilepticus. Diazepam: Ideal for treating febrile seizures. Magnesium Sulfate: The preferred option for seizures in eclampsia. Category 4: Drugs of Choice for Poisoning Swift and appropriate intervention is crucial in cases of poisoning. Here are the drugs of choice for various poisoning scenarios: Physostigmine: The drug of choice for atropine, belladonna, and datura poisoning. Atropine: Essential in carbamate poisoning, early mushroom poisoning, and organophosphate poisoning. Flumazenil: An antidote for benzodiazepine poisoning. Acetylcysteine: Used to counteract acetaminophen poisoning. Naloxone: The primary choice for opioid poisoning. Deferiprone: Prescribed for chronic iron poisoning. Desferrioxamine: Effective in cases of acute iron poisoning. Glucagon: A lifesaver in beta-blocker poisoning. Amyl Nitrate: Recommended for cyanide poisoning. Category 5: Drugs of Choice for Bronchial Asthma Asthma management necessitates tailored approaches. Here are the drugs of choice for various asthma conditions: Salbutamol: The drug of choice for acute asthma attacks in normal patients and pregnant women. It is also effective for exercise and aspirin-induced asthma attacks. Ipratropium: Preferred for acute asthma attacks during labor and in patients on beta-blocker therapy. Corticosteroids: Indispensable for prophylaxis against bronchial asthma, exercise-induced asthma, and aspirin-induced asthma. Category 6: Drugs of Choice in Antimicrobials Prophylaxis Prophylactic measures are essential to prevent infections in specific populations. Here are the drugs of choice for antimicrobial prophylaxis: Ampicillin: Used to avoid Group B streptococcus infections. Amoxicillin: Ideal for prophylaxis against endocarditis and otitis media. Azithromycin: Recommended for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and pertussis prophylaxis. Benzathine Penicillin: Essential in preventing rheumatic fever. Procaine Penicillin: Recommended for gonorrhea and syphilis prophylaxis. Tetracycline: Effective against rickettsial infections and plague. Cefazoline: Preferred for surgical prophylaxis. Doxycycline: Used to prevent anthrax. Trimethoprim and Sulphamethoxazole: The drug of choice for toxoplasmosis, pneumocystis, and urinary tract infections. Rifampicin: Recommended for Hemophilus influenza type B prophylaxis. Oseltamivir: Effective in preventing influenza Type A & B. Category 7: Anesthetic Drugs of Choice Selecting a suitable anesthetic is crucial for patient safety. Here are the drugs of choice for various medical procedures: Propofol: Ideal for daycare procedures. Sevoflurane: Recommended for congenital heart disease, including ASD, VSD, and PDA. Etomidate: A suitable choice for ischemic heart disease. Ketamine: Indicated for asthma, COPD, shock, CHF, and congenital heart disease with a right-to-left shunt. Thiopentone: Used for epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Methohexitone: Essential for electroconvulsive therapy. Isoflurane: Effective for cardiac and neurosurgical procedures and deliberate hypotension induction. Category 8: Drugs of Choice in Endocrinological Disorders Effective management of endocrine conditions is vital. Here are the drugs of choice for various endocrinological disorders: Insulin: The primary treatment for type 1 diabetes, diabetes mellitus during pregnancy, diabetic ketoacidosis, and uncontrolled diabetes. Metformin: Recommended for type 2 diabetes and diabetes mellitus associated with obesity. Sildenafil: Indispensable for erectile dysfunction. Hydrocortisone: Used in cases of acute and chronic adrenal insufficiency. Nateglinide: Effective for postprandial hyperglycemia. Methotrexate: The drug of choice for ectopic pregnancy. Oxytocin: Indicated for postpartum hemorrhage and labor induction. Cabergoline: Essential in the treatment of acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. Finasteride: Recommended for androgenetic alopecia. Alendronate: Ideal for the management of osteoporosis. Category 9: Drugs of Choice in Fungal Infections Fungal infections require specialized treatment. Here are the drugs of choice for various fungal infections: Amphotericin B: The top choice for meningeal histoplasmosis, endocarditis caused by candida, severe or CNS blastomycosis, and induction therapy for cryptococcal meningitis (for two weeks). Fluconazole: Effective against Candida albicans and for maintenance in cryptococcal meningitis. Itraconazole: Recommended for nonmeningeal histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, mild or non-CNS blastomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and Penicillium marneffei. Prednisolone + Itraconazole/Voriconazole: Indicated for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Caspofungin: The drug of choice for Candida glabrata and Candida krusei infections. Category 10:

Top 100 Drugs Of Choice For Different Diseases Read More »

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

What are proton pump inhibitors and Their Mechanism ? Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce the production of acid by obstruction the enzyme in the wall of the stomach that produces acid. Acid is important for the formation of most ulcers in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, and therefore the reduction of acid with PPIs prevents ulcers and permits any ulcers that exist within the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum to heal. What diseases do PPIs treat? Proton pump inhibitors are used for the prevention and treatment of acid-related conditions such as: For Treatment Of Esophageal duodenal and stomach ulcers NSAID-associated ulcer For Other Ulcers For The Treatment Of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) And for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome They also are used in combination with antibiotics for eradicating Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that together with acid causes ulcers of the stomach and duodenum.cs for eradicating H. pylori, a bacterium that together with acid causes ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. Proton Pump Inhibitors for (GERD) And Other Conditions Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) Reduce the generation of Acid by obstructing the compound in the mass of the stomach that produces Acid : Examples Generic Name         Brand Name Dexlansoprazole      Dexilant Esomeprazole           Nexium Lansoprazole             Prevacid Omeprazole               Prilosec, Zegerid Pantoprazole             Protonix Rabeprazole               Aciphex These drugs are taken by mouth (as a pill or fluid) on more than one occasion a day. Some of these medications are given intravenously (IV) in the Hospital. Side Effects: The most common side effects of proton pump inhibitors are: Headache Vomiting Nausea Constipation Abdominal pain Diarrhea Flatulence Fever Rash Nevertheless, proton pump inhibitors generally are well tolerated. PPIs may increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection of the colon. High doses and long-term use (1 year or longer) may increase the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. Prolonged use also reduces absorption of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). Long-term use of PPIs has also been associated with low levels of magnesium (hypomagnesemia). Analysis of patients taking PPIs for long periods of time showed an increased risk of heart attacks. Therefore, it is important to use the lowest doses and shortest duration of treatment necessary for the condition being treated. Other serious side effects associate with PPIs include: Toxic epidermal necrolysis Reduced liver function Erythema multiform Stevens-Johnson syndrome Reduced kidney function Serious allergic reactions Pancreatitis

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) Read More »

Paracetamol: Uses, Side Effects, Mechanism, Dosage

Acetaminophen belong to a class of drug Called analgesic(pain reliever) and antipyretics(fever reducer).It is  used to treat different Medical conditions such as headache, muscle aches, arthritis, backache, toothaches, colds,menstrual periods and fevers.The FDA approved acetaminophen in 1951. Paracetamol is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. Paracetamol can be found in many over the counter medications such as Anacin®, Tylenol®, Panadol® Paracetamol suppositories (available in Thailand), Paralen® Paracetamol injection, Paracemol®, etc. Paracetamol is a pharmacologically active ingredient that has analgesic and antipyretic activity, and hence it is also used in the treatment of pain and fever associated with infections, mild arthritic conditions, or headaches. Paracetamol has less effect on inflammation than common anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Paracetamol is an analgesic, antipyretic and the best known of the commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers in many countries. Paracetamol has become one of most widely used pharmaceutical agents. Mechanism Of Action Acetaminophen is assumed to act primarily within the central nervous system, increasing the pain threshold by inhibiting each isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3 enzymes involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. in contrast to NSAIDs, acetaminophen doesn’t inhibit cyclooxygenase in peripheral tissues and, thus, has no peripheral anti-inflammatory affects. whereas acetylsalicylic acid acts as an irreversible inhibitor of COX and directly blocks the enzyme’s active site, studies have found that Tylenol indirectly blocks COX, and that this blockade is ineffective within the presence of peroxides. This would possibly make a case for why Tylenol is effective within the central nervous system and in endothelial cells however not in platelets and immune cells that have high levels of peroxides. Studies additionally report data suggesting that acetaminophen selectively blocks a variant of the COX enzyme that’s completely different from the known variants cox-1 and Cox-2. This enzyme is currently stated as COX-3. Its precise mechanism of action continues to be poorly understood, however future research could give any insight into how it works. The antipyretic properties of acetaminophen are possible as a result of direct effects on the heat-regulating centres of the hypothalamus leading to peripheral dilatation, sweating and thus temperature reduction. Side Effects: Paracetamol  usually has no side effects. If you have any unusual effects, contact your doctor or pharmacist promptly. The most serious side effect is liverdamage due to overdoses, And The most common side effects are headache,rash And ,nausea . Other important side effects include: Serious skin reactions Hypersensitivity reactions Anemia Reduced number of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia) Kidney damage Usual Adult Dose for Pain Doses may be given as a single or repeated dose as follows: Oral: Immediate-release: 325 mg to 1 g orally every 4 to 6 hours Minimum Dosing Interval: every 4 hours Maximum Single Dose: 1000 mg Maximum Dose: 4 g per 24 hours Extended-Release: 1300 mg orally every 8 hours Maximum dose: 3900 mg per 24 hours Parenteral: Weight less than 50 kg: 15 mg/kg IV every 6 hours OR 12.5 mg/kg IV every 4 hours Maximum Single Dose: 15 mg/kg Minimum Dosing Interval: every 4 hours Maximum Dose: 75 mg/kg per 24 hours Weight 50 kg or greater: 1000 mg IV every 6 hours OR 650 mg IV every 4 hours Maximum Single Dose: 1000 mg Minimum Dosing Interval: every 4 hours Maximum Dose: 4000 mg per 24 hours Rectal: 650 mg rectally every 4 to 6 hours Maximum dose: 3900 mg per 24 hours Usual Adult Dose for Fever Doses may be given as a single or repeated dose as follows: Oral: Immediate-release: 325 mg to 1 g orally every 4 to 6 hours Minimum Dosing Interval: every 4 hours Maximum Single Dose: 1000 mg Maximum Dose: 4 g per 24 hours Extended-Release: 1300 mg orally every 8 hours Maximum dose: 3900 mg per 24 hours Parenteral: Weight less than 50 kg: 15 mg/kg IV every 6 hours OR 12.5 mg/kg IV every 4 hours Maximum Single Dose: 15 mg/kg Minimum Dosing Interval: every 4 hours Maximum Dose: 75 mg/kg per 24 hours Weight 50 kg or greater: 1000 mg IV every 6 hours OR 650 mg IV every 4 hours Maximum Single Dose: 1000 mg Minimum Dosing Interval: every 4 hours Maximum Dose: 4000 mg per 24 hours Rectal: 650 mg rectally every 4 to 6 hours Maximum dose: 3900 mg per 24 hours Pediatric Dose Pain Doses may be given as a single or repeated dose as follows: ORAL: 10 to 15 mg/kg orally every 4 to 6 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours -Alternatively, use weight first, then age: 2.7 to 5.3 kg (0 to 3 months): 40 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 5.4 to 8.1 kg (4 to 11 months): 80 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 8.2 to 10.8 kg (12 to 23 months): 120 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 10.9 to 16.3 kg (2 to 3 years): 160 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 16.4 to 21.7 kg (4 to 5 years): 240 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 21.8 to 27.2 kg (6 to 8 years): 320 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 27.3 to 32.6 kg (9 to 10 years): 400 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 32.7 to 43.2 kg (11 to 12 years): 480 mg orally every 4 hours as needed not to exceed 5 doses in 24 hours 12 years or older:immediate-release: 325 mg to 1 g orally every 4 to 6 hours Minimum Dosing Interval: every 4 hours Maximum Single Dose: 1000 mg Maximum Dose: 4 g per 24 hours Extended-Release: 1300 mg orally every 8 hours Maximum dose: 3900 mg per 24 hours PARENTERAL: 2 to 12 years: 12.5 mg/kg IV every 4 hours OR 15 mg/kg

Paracetamol: Uses, Side Effects, Mechanism, Dosage Read More »

Scientists Developed A New Medical  Device To  Diagnose A Dozen  Different Diseases

Average people might sooner or later be able to use a Star Trek-inspired home medical device to diagnose a dozen completely different diseases and track five major important signs, all without having to draw blood or visit a doctor’s office. Engineers developed the DxtER device as a part of a contest to make a modern version of the “tricorder” that Dr. Leonard “Bones” McCoy waved over patients on the starship Enterprise to diagnose sicknesses. The DxtER combines an array of various sensors with intelligent diagnostic computer code in a package weighing but five pounds, same technology design skilled Philip Charron, a member of the team that created the device., Charron said the DxtER combines: A wrist and hand detector that checks blood pressure, glucose levels, hemoglobin, white blood cell counts and blood oxygen levels. A spirometer, that could be a device to measure the air capability of the lungs once people breathe into the machine. A chest sensor for observation heart rate, respiration, and temperature. A digital stethoscope that listens to sounds from breathing. All of these devices act with diagnostic software running on a tablet. A person using the DxtER at home will check themselves for anemia, tract infections, diabetes, atrial fibrillation(irregular heartbeat), sleep disorder, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), pneumonia, ear infection, pertussis, high blood pressure, mononucleosis and raised white blood cell counts “A regular consumer will sit down with our device, answer some queries, and it’ll return with a diagnosis,” This Device can also monitor 5 important signs continuously: blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, rate of respiration and blood oxygen levels. All of the sensors are noninvasive. No blood needs to be drawn and nothing must be inserted into the body. Charron aforementioned that his group, Final Frontier Medical Devices, received a $2.6 million award in April for developing the DxtER and demonstrating an accuracy rate beyond 70 %. Final Frontier was to present the DxtER in the week at the annual meeting of the american Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) in san diego. Findings given at conferences are usually viewed as preliminary till they have beenpublished in a very peer-reviewed journal. “Now it’s up to the peers within the scientific community to examine if it works the way it’s speculated to,” said AACC President michael bennett, director of the Palmieri Metabolic Laboratory at Children’s Hospital of philadelphia. “You apply a number of these devices to your body, so answer queries on the tablet concerning your symptoms, just like you’d with a doctor in a very doctor’s office,” Charron aforesaid. The competition, referred to as the Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE, kicked off in 2012 and involved 300 completely different engineering teams. “It really was a five-year mission, just like in Star Trek,” Charron said. The Final Frontier team place about a 0.5 million dollars out of their own pockets into the endeavor, which ate up as several as 24,000 hours of combined effort, according to Charron. The team tested its diagnostic software against an approved set of anonymous patient charts, to see if it would accurately diagnose illnesses when provided the proper vital signs and body chemistry readings, Charron aforesaid. For the contest, researchers handed the device to patients with diagnosed medical conditions. The patients had to be able to use the device on themselves, unaided, to accurately diagnose their specific illness. The point was to develop a home health care kit that could help families figure out basic illnesses, preventing unnecessary trips to the emergency room or doctor’s office, Bennett said. Because of this, it was built to be affordable. The DxtER should cost between $200 and $400 retail, Charron said, although insurers might chip in to bring the cost down even lower if the device proves accurate enough to cut down on visits to the hospital or doctor. Alongside home health care, the DxtER also could prove of great benefit for disaster relief, in refugee camps, as part of military medicine, and even as a means that of diagnosis health issues throughout space travel, Charron instructed. The DxtER now will proceed to clinical trials. The device’s accuracy will be tested against tried-and-true equipment now being used in hospitals, and the results will help researchers better hone the diagnostic software, Charron said. James Nichols is the medical director of clinical chemistry at Vanderbilt University school of medicine. He said, “As with any new device, we want to examine what its performance is. we would like it to be reproducible and be correct and compare well with traditionally known tests. once we see however it really performs once it’s place within the hands of laypeople, then we’ll know a little better what still must be found out with the device.” As a part of development, Nichols additional, engineers conjointly ought to think about however the information-gathered by DxtER are going to be uploaded and shared with a human medical aid doctor.

Scientists Developed A New Medical  Device To  Diagnose A Dozen  Different Diseases Read More »

Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones: An Overview

Introduction Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are groups of antibiotics that have been used to treat various bacterial infections since the 1960s. This article discusses the importance of fluoroquinolones, their mechanism of action, classification, and spectrum of activity. The Significance of Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones have gained significant importance due to their excellent oral absorption and perfect distribution in the body, leading to deep tissue penetration. This makes them highly efficient at killing intracellular organisms like chlamydia, TB, Legionella, and Brucella. Additionally, newer fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics with high potency and well-tolerated, making them safer than other antibiotic medicines. Mechanism of Action of Quinolones Quinolones and fluoroquinolones work as bactericidal agents that inhibit bacterial replication by blocking the DNA replication pathway. During protein synthesis and DNA replication, enzymes in the bacteria called DNA gyrase or DNA topoisomerase are responsible for unwinding double-stranded DNA into a single-stranded structure. DNA gyrase, a topoisomerase II-type enzyme, unwinds DNA by introducing negative supercoils and relaxing positive supercoils. Quinolones and fluoroquinolones inhibit this enzyme by binding to the A-subunit of the enzyme. This prevents bacteria from replicating or synthesizing proteins, leading to cell death. [1] Classification of Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are classified into four generations. The first-generation quinolone is Nalidix acid, and the other three are fluoroquinolones, which are derivatives of nalidixic acid. The following are the classes of quinolones and fluoroquinolones: First Generation The only quinolone, Nalidixic acid, is moderately effective against gram-negative bacteria but is not commonly used due to poor distribution in the body. It is only used in rare uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Second Generation They are more effective against gram-negative bacteria than Nalidixic acid and have some gram-positive coverage. However, they do not work on Streptococcus pneumonia. Ciprofloxacin (Ciproxin) is the most widely used drug in this class and is effective against atypical organisms like Chlamydia and Mycoplasma, which cause respiratory tract infections. Third Generation Levofloxacin is a third-generation fluoroquinolone with more potent gram-positive coverage and helps treat respiratory tract infections. Fourth Generation Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is also used to treat respiratory tract infections. [2] Spectrum of Activity The spectrum of activity of quinolones and fluoroquinolones varies depending on their generation. The first-generation quinolone, Nalidixic acid, is moderately effective against gram-negative bacteria but is not commonly used due to poor bodily distribution. Second-generation quinolones are more efficient against gram-negative bacteria than Nalidixic acid but have limited activity against gram-positive bacteria. The third and fourth-generation quinolones have full gram-positive coverage, making them more effective against respiratory tract infections. [3] Newer agents and resistance: Although fluoroquinolones are considered broad-spectrum antibiotics, the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria has become a major concern. The widespread use of these antibiotics has led to an increase in bacterial resistance. Resistance occurs through chromosomal mutations, transfer of resistance genes, and overuse of antibiotics. The most common mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones is mutations in genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. These mutations can cause a decrease in fluoroquinolone binding to the enzymes, making the drugs less effective. In addition, bacteria can also develop efflux pumps that actively remove the drugs from the bacterial cell, further reducing their effectiveness. Despite these concerns, fluoroquinolones remain an essential tool in treating bacterial infections. When used appropriately, these drugs can effectively treat many infections. Side effects and precautions: While fluoroquinolones are generally safe and well-tolerated, they have potential side effects. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, and photosensitivity. More severe side effects include tendonitis and tendon rupture, particularly in older patients and those on long-term therapy. Fluoroquinolones should be used cautiously in patients with pre-existing conditions such as epilepsy or kidney disease and not in pregnant or breastfeeding women. They may also interact with other medications, so it is important to discuss all medications with your healthcare provider before starting treatment with fluoroquinolones. Conclusion In conclusion, quinolones and fluoroquinolones are an important class of antibiotics that have revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections. These drugs have a unique mechanism of action that targets bacterial DNA replication and are highly effective against a broad range of gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. While the emergence of resistant strains is a concern, these drugs remain an essential tool in treating bacterial infections when used appropriately. FAQs: Can fluoroquinolones be used to treat viral infections? No, fluoroquinolones are only effective against bacterial infections and should not be used to treat viral infections. Are fluoroquinolones safe for everyone to use? While fluoroquinolones are generally safe and well-tolerated, they should be used cautiously in specific populations, such as older adults and those with pre-existing conditions. How do fluoroquinolones differ from other types of antibiotics? Fluoroquinolones have a unique mechanism of action that targets bacterial DNA replication, making them highly effective against a broad range of bacteria. Can I drink alcohol while taking fluoroquinolones? It is generally recommended to avoid alcohol while taking antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones. Are fluoroquinolones available over-the-counter? No, fluoroquinolones are prescription-only drugs and should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones: An Overview Read More »

Drugs Used In Asthma

Asthma  According To WHO, A medical Condition is characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, which vary in severity and frequency from person to person. In an individual, they may occur from hour to hour and day to day. If you or a loved one has an asthma attack, you must understand the most effective asthma treatments for short-run relief and long-term management. Understanding asthma treatments can modify you to work with your asthma doctor to manage your asthma symptoms daily confidently. When you have Asthma or asthma symptoms, it is essential to understand when to call your doctor to stop an asthma emergency.   Drugs Used In Asthma There are two types of drugs used in asthma, Short Relief And Long Term Asthma Control Medications. Long-term control medications reduce the inflammation in your airways that leads to symptoms. Quick-relief inhalers Or Short Term Medications (bronchodilators) quickly open swollen airways that are limiting breathing. In some cases, allergy medications are necessary. Short Term medications  Short Term medications are used as required for speedy, short-term symptom relief during asthma or before exercise if your doctor recommends it. types of quick-relief drugs include: Short-acting beta-agonists. These inhaled, quick-relief bronchodilators act within minutes to quickly ease symptoms throughout an asthma attack. They embrace albuterol (ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA, others) and levalbuterol (Xopenex). Short-acting beta-agonists will be taken using a portable, hand-held inhaler or a nebulizer — a machine that converts asthma medications to a fine mist — so they will be inhaled through a mask or a mouthpiece Oral and intravenous corticosteroids. These medications — that include prednisone and methylprednisolone — relieve airway inflammation caused by a severe asthma attack. They will cause serious side effects once used long term. Therefore they are used solely on a short-run basis to treat severe asthma symptoms.   Ipratropium  Like other bronchodilators, ipratropium acts quickly to instantly relax your airways, creating it more comfortable to breathe. Ipratropium is generally used for emphysema and chronic bronchitis. However, it’s usually used to treat asthma attacks.   If you have got an asthma flare-up, a quick-relief inhaler will ease your symptoms quickly. However, if your long-term management medications are working correctly, you should not get to use your quick-relief inhaler very often.   Keep a record of how many puffs you employ each week. If you would like to use your quick-relief inhaler more typically than your doctor recommends, see your doctor. You most likely need to change your long-term management medication.   Allergy medications might facilitate if your asthma attack is triggered or worsened by allergies. These include: Omalizumab (Xolair). This medication, given as an associate injection each 2 to four weeks, is specifically for those with allergies and severe asthma attacks. It acts by altering the immune system. Allergy shots (immunotherapy). Over time, allergic reaction shots step by step reduce your immune system reaction to specific allergens. You usually receive shots once every week for a few months, then once a month, for an amount of 3 to 5 years. Long-term asthma management medications: Long-term asthma management medications, usually taken daily, are the cornerstone of bronchial asthma treatment. These medications keep asthma under control regularly and create it less possible you will have asthma. types of long-run management medications include: Long-acting beta-agonists. These inhaled medications, which include salmeterol (Serevent) and formoterol (Foradil, Perforomist), open the airways. Some research shows that they’ll increase the risk of a severe asthma attack, thus take them only in combination with an inhaled steroid. And since these medications will mask bronchial asthma deterioration, do not use them for an acute respiratory disorder. Inhaled corticosteroids. These anti-inflammatory drug medications include fluticasone (Flonase, Flovent HFA), budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler, Rhinocort), flunisolide (Aerospan HFA), ciclesonide (Alvesco, Omnaris, Zetonna), beclomethasone (Qnasl, Qvar), mometasone (Asmanex), and fluticasone furoate (Arnuity Ellipta). You may need to use these medications for many days to weeks before they reach their maximum benefit. Not like oral corticosteroids, these steroid medications have a comparatively low risk of side effects and are usually safe for long-run use. Theophylline. Theophylline (Theo-24, elixophyllin, others) could be a daily pill that helps keep the airways open (bronchodilator) by relaxing the airways’ muscles. It is not used as usual now as in past years. Leukotriene modifiers. These oral medications — together with montelukast (Singulair), zafirlukast (Accolate), and zileuton (Zyflo) — help relieve bronchial asthma symptoms for up to 24 hours. In rare cases, these medications are linked to psychological reactions, such as agitation, aggression, hallucinations, depression, and suicidal thinking. Look for medical advice quickly for any unusual reaction. Combination inhalers. These medications — like fluticasone-salmeterol (Advair Diskus), budesonide-formoterol (Symbicort), and formoterol-mometasone (Dulera) — contain a long-acting beta-agonist in conjunction with a steroid. As a result of these combination inhalers have long beta-agonists, they’ll increase your risk of getting a severe respiratory disorder.

Drugs Used In Asthma Read More »

List of Emergency Drugs & Their Doses

When seconds count, understanding the right tools can mean the difference between life and death. This concise guide explores the essential drugs used in emergencies, outlining their applications and the critical situations they address. From calming a heart in distress to clearing blocked airways, we’ll explore how these medications work their magic on a cellular level to restore vital functions. Remember, this is for educational purposes only. In a real emergency, always call emergency services or seek immediate medical attention. Let’s take a look at these powerful medications and explore how they combat various medical crises, from calming a racing heart to clearing a struggling airway.  Hypertensive Emergencies Hypertensive emergencies involve a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure that can damage organs. Medications are used to bring blood pressure down quickly and prevent complications. Drug Class: Antihypertensive (various classes).  Sodium Nitroprusside (IV): Dose: 20-300 mcg/min Description: Preferred for predictable, immediate, and titratable (adjustable) relaxation of both arteries and veins, improving blood flow. Due to potential toxicity at higher doses, close monitoring is essential. Labetalol (for pregnancy-induced hypertension): This medication helps lower blood pressure in pregnant women. Esmolol (alternative to Labetalol injection): In situations where Labetalol injection is unavailable, Esmolol can be used for a similar effect. Nifedipine (sublingual capsule): If injectable medications are not available, nifedipine capsules placed under the tongue can be used for a rapid reduction in blood pressure. Phentolamine or Labetalol (for pheochromocytoma, cheese reaction, or clonidine withdrawal): These medications can help manage hypertensive episodes caused by these specific conditions. Indications Systolic blood pressure higher than 220 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure higher than 120 mmHg with evidence of organ damage. Mechanism of Action Different medications work in various ways to relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure. General Considerations These medications should only be administered under the supervision of a medical professional in a healthcare setting due to the potential for rapid and significant blood pressure reductions. Cardiovascular Emergencies A variety of emergencies can affect the heart and blood vessels. Medications are used to address symptoms, improve blood flow, and prevent further complications. Coronary Pain Syndromes Stable Angina: Chest pain caused by narrowed coronary arteries that restrict blood flow to the heart. Unstable Angina: Worsening or new chest pain that may indicate an increased risk of heart attack. Drug Class: Nitrates (e.g., nitroglycerin) Antiplatelet medications (e.g., aspirin) Indications: Stable angina: Relief of chest pain. Unstable angina: Relief of chest pain and possibly reducing the risk of heart attack. Mechanism of Action: Nitrates: Relax blood vessels to improve blood flow to the heart, reducing chest pain. Antiplatelet medications: Inhibit blood clot formation, which can help prevent heart attacks. General Considerations: Nitroglycerin is typically administered sublingually (under the tongue) for rapid relief of angina symptoms. Aspirin is usually taken orally as a preventive measure. Both medications can cause side effects such as headache and dizziness. Related: Top 101 Common Medicines  Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) A complete blockage of a coronary artery causes heart muscle death. Drug Class: Nitrates Antiplatelet medications Thrombolytics (clot busters) Indications: Treatment of a heart attack to improve blood flow, minimize heart muscle damage, and improve survival rates. Mechanism of Action: It is the same as for angina (nitrates and antiplatelet medications). Thrombolytics: Dissolve blood clots to reopen blocked arteries and restore blood flow to the heart muscle. General Considerations: Timely administration of medications is crucial to minimize heart damage. Nitrates and antiplatelet medications are typically given immediately. Thrombolytics have a narrow window of effectiveness and may not be suitable for everyone due to bleeding risks. Cardiogenic Shock A condition where the heart weakens and cannot pump blood effectively enough to meet the body’s needs. Drug Class: Inotropes (e.g., dobutamine) Vasodilators (e.g., nitroglycerin) Diuretics (e.g., furosemide) Indications: Improve heart function and blood flow, reduce the workload on the heart, and eliminate excess fluid. Mechanism of Action: Inotropes: Increase the force of heart contractions, improving blood circulation. Vasodilators: Relax blood vessels, reducing blood pressure and workload on the heart. Diuretics: Increase urine output to remove excess fluid and improve blood flow. General Considerations: These medications require close monitoring in a critical care setting due to their potent effects on blood pressure and heart function. Cardiac Arrhythmias Abnormal heart rhythms can affect heart rate and blood flow. Drug Class: Antiarrhythmics (various classes) Indications: Vary depending on the specific arrhythmia and its severity. Mechanism of Action: Different medications work in various ways to regulate heart rate and electrical impulses within the heart. General Considerations: Antiarrhythmics can have complex effects on the heart and require careful monitoring and adjustment by a medical professional. Cardiac Arrest The heart stops beating completely, resulting in loss of consciousness and breathing. Treatment: Immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (AED) are essential to restart the heart. Medications may also be used in advanced cardiac life support measures. Respiratory Emergencies Conditions that impair breathing and oxygen delivery to the body. Medications can help open airways, reduce inflammation, and improve breathing. Asthma A chronic inflammatory airway disease that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough. Drug Class: Bronchodilators (e.g., albuterol) Corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone) Indications: Bronchodilators: Relieve bronchospasm (airway narrowing) during an asthma attack, improving airflow. Corticosteroids: Reduce inflammation in the airways for long-term asthma management. Mechanism of Action: Bronchodilators: Relax muscles around the airways, allowing them to open wider and improve airflow. Corticosteroids: Suppress inflammation in the airways, reducing airway narrowing and irritation. General Considerations: Bronchodilators are typically inhaled for rapid relief of asthma symptoms. Corticosteroids may be administered orally or inhaled for long-term control. Both medications can cause side effects. Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) A progressive lung disease that causes airflow obstruction. Drug Class: Bronchodilators (similar to those used for asthma) Corticosteroids (may be used in severe cases) Indications: Similar to asthma, medications may be needed on a more frequent basis due to the progressive nature of COPD. Mechanism of Action: Same as for asthma medications. General Considerations: Management focuses on relieving symptoms and slowing disease progression. Epiglottitis A sudden inflammation of the epiglottis (upper part of the larynx) that

List of Emergency Drugs & Their Doses Read More »

Aspirin (Ascard, Loprin Tablet)

Aspirin (Brands: Ascard,  Loprin Tablet)  Is The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has antipyretic And anti-inflammatory properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin or Acetylsalicylic acid (Ascard,  Loprin Tablet) also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Aspirin is The Most commonly Used medicine that has a number of uses, reducing the risk of serious problems such as from heart attacks, and strokes To relieving pain. It comes in many Dosage forms, including pills, tablets that are dissolved in water, powders and oral gels. Some types can be bought over the counter from pharmacies, while others are only available on prescription. Uses for aspirin (Ascard,  Loprin Tablet)  At high doses usually 300mg – aspirin can relieve pain, reduce a high temperature (fever) and reduce swelling. It’s often used for short-term relief from: Colds and flu Period pains Headaches and migraines A toothache General aches and pains In the treatment of myocardial infarction Many other inflammatory joint conditions (in higher doses) For the prevention of stroke (in lower doses) In the treatment of coronary artery disease To inhibit platelet aggregations (blood clot formations) to reduce risk of transient ischemic attacks and unstable angina (in lower doses) In the treatment of pericarditis Note: Aspirin (Ascard,  Loprin Tablet) Is Contraindicated In Children Because Of the risk of developing Reye’s Syndrome Side Effects Of Aspirin (Ascard,  Loprin Tablet, and other brands) The most common side effects of aspirin are: Nausea Irritation of the stomach or gut Indigestion The following side effects are possible but less common: Vomiting Bruising Asthma symptoms may worsen Stomach bleeding Inflammation of the stomach   Precautions For Aspirin (Ascard,  Loprin Tablet)  Aspirin Is Not Recommended For People with a known allergy to aspirin People who are allergic to any NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen People who have a peptic ulcer Patients with hemophilia or any other bleeding disorder Children under 16 years of age The following people should be cautious about taking aspirin, and should only do so if the doctor agrees: Patients with liver problems Patients with uncontrolled hypertension Patients with asthma Patients with kidney problems People who have had a previous peptic ulcer. Related article: Comparison Among Paracetamol, Aspirin, And Ibuprofen Check This Amazing Infographic About Aspirin (Ascard, Loprin Tablet)  

Aspirin (Ascard, Loprin Tablet) Read More »

Most Dangerous Drugs

It depends on how we define “dangerous” and whether we mean legal , illegal or Prescription drugs. Most dangerous drugs are the one that do the most damage, mentally,physically,and socially. In terms of most dangerous drugs , Alcohol, heroin, and crack cocaine topped the chart. Alcohol, tobacco, and prescription painkillers are likely deadlier than other drugs because they are legal, so comparing their aggregate effects to illegal drugs is difficult. Some drugs are very harmful to individuals, but they’re so rarely used that they may not be a major public health threat. A few drugs are enormously dangerous in the short term but not so much the long term (heroin), or vice versa (tobacco). And looking at deaths or other harms caused by certain drugs doesn’t always account for substances, such as prescription medications, that are often mixed with others, making them more deadly or harmful than they would be alone   Some Of The Most Dangerous (Prescription) Drugs According To  report Published In Healthgrove Website .Using data from the Food and Drug Administration, HealthGrove looked at the following drugs that are involved in the highest number of adverse reactions and ranked them by the percent of these reactions classified as serious.   (1)Cyclophosphamide Number of Serious Reactions: 33,128 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 97% Total Number of Reported Reactions: 34,076 Brand Names: Cytoxan, Cytoxan Lyophilized Therapeutic Class: Antineoplastic Agent     (2)Prednisolone Number of Serious Reactions: 42,323 Therapeutic Class: Endocrine-Metabolic Agent Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 96% Brand Names: Bubbli-Pred, Cotolone, Flo-Pred, Millipred, Millipred Dp, Orapred, Orapred Odt, Pediapred, Prelone, Veripred 20, Pms-Prednisolone   (3)Bevacizumab Number of Serious Reactions: 39,957 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 96% Total Number of Reported Reactions: 41,281 Brand Names: Avastin Therapeutic Class: Immunological Agent (4)Rituximab Number of Serious Reactions: 30,014 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 96% Total Number of Reported Reactions: 31,157 Brand Names: Rituxan Therapeutic Class: Antineoplastic Agent (5)Clozapine Number of Serious Reactions: 29,470 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 95% Therapeutic Class: Antipsychotic Brand Names: Clozaril, Fazaclo, Versacloz Total Number of Reported Reactions: 30,914 (6) Dexamethasone Number of Serious Reactions: 38,966 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 93% Therapeutic Class: Endocrine-Metabolic Agent Brand Names: Baycadron Elixer, Decadron, Dekpak 13 Day Taperpak, Dexamethasone Intensol, Dexpak, Dexpak 10 Day Taperpak, Dexpak Jr, Zema-Pak (7)Zoledronic Acid Number of Serious Reactions: 35,581 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 93% Total Number of Reported Reactions: 38,016 Brand Names: Reclast, Zometa Therapeutic Class: Calcium Regulator (8)Tacrolimus Number of Serious Reactions: 27,964 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 92% Therapeutic Class: Antipsoriatic Brand Names: Protopic (9)Infliximab Number of Serious Reactions: 68,167 Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 91% Therapeutic Class: Immunological Agent Total Number of Reported Reactions: 74,738 Brand Names: Remicade (10)Metoclopramide Total Number of Reported Reactions: 35,623 Number of Serious Reactions: 32,757 Therapeutic Class: Antiemetic Percent of Reactions That Were Serious: 91% Brand Names: Metozolv Odt, Reglan   A group Of Researchers  In The UK  published a Report in The Lancet ,Regarding Drugs ,In term of deadliness,chance of dependence and behavioural changes Such As voilence ,And Losses In Economic Productivity. (1)Alcohol (2)Heroin (3)Crack Cocaine (4)Methamphetamine (5)Cocaine (6)Tobbaco (7)Amphetamine (8)Marijuana (9)GHB (10)Bezodiazepine (11)Ketamine (12)Methadone (13)Mephedrone (14)Butane (15)Anabolic Steroids (16)Khat (17)Ecsatasy (18)LSD (19)Buprenorphine (20)Mushrooms    

Most Dangerous Drugs Read More »