Antibiotics: Types, Uses, Mechanism

Antibiotics are used for a variety of infections or diseases (eg Pneumonia and pertussis) bacteria, such as

  • Respiratory tract infections,
  • Urinary tract infections,
  • Skin infections and
  • infected wounds.

Antibiotics have saved the lives of millions of people since it was only in 1940 and 1950. However, it was introduced because they were too much, many antibiotics are no longer effective against bacteria that once killed.

They contain a variety of powerful medicines and are used to treat diseases caused by bacteria.

Antibiotics treat bacterial infections, but not viral infections. For example, an antibiotic, an appropriate treatment for streptococci, is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. But it is not the right treatment for most sore throat caused by viruses.

Other common viral infections that do not benefit from antibiotic treatment are:

  • Flu (influenza)
  • Cold
  • Bronchitis
  • Most coughs
  • Stomach flu
  • Some ear infections
  • Some sinus infections.

How it work:

Antibiotics fight bacterial infections by either killing bacteria or reducing and stopping growth. They do this by:

  • Attacks the wall or covers bacteria
  • Disrupt bacterial reproduction
  • Blockage of protein production in bacteria

Types of antibiotics

There are hundreds of different types of antibiotics, but most of them can be divided into approximately six groups. These are listed below.

1. Penicillins (such as penicillin and amoxicillin) are widely used to treat a variety of infections, including skin infections, urinary tract and sinus infections.

2. Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that can be used to treat a variety of infections.

3. Cephalosporins (like cephalexin) are used to treat a variety of infections, but some are also used to treat serious infections such as septicemia and effective meningitis.

4. Tetracyclines (such as tetracycline and doxycycline) can be used to treat a variety of infections, but are commonly used to treat moderate to severe acne and rosacea.

5. Aminoglycosides (such as gentamicin and tobramycin) – are only used in hospitals to treat very serious diseases, such as sepsis, as they can cause serious side effects such as hearing loss and kidney damage; They are usually given by injection, but they can be administered as drops for some eye or ear infections.

6. Macrolides are particularly useful for the treatment of lung and chest infections, or an alternative for people with penicillin allergy, or for the treatment of bacteria-resistant strains of penicillin.drugs in this class of antibiotics are clarithromycin and erythromycin).

Top 10 Antibiotic Classes

  1. Penicillins
  2. Tetracyclines
  3. Cephalosporins
  4. Quinolones
  5. Lincomycins
  6. Macrolides
  7. Sulfonamides
  8. Glycopeptides
  9. Aminoglycosides
  10. Carbapenems

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1 thought on “Antibiotics: Types, Uses, Mechanism”

  1. ramesh bansal

    very useful information for all antibiotics which is rarely known to all public.

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