Pyrazinamide: Uses, Side effects, Dosage

Pyrazinamide is an antitubercular medication that helps to deal with tuberculosis and lessens the spread of the disease. It needs to be taken with other medications to protect against the spread of disease. This medication isn’t recommended in patients with liver disease or severe gout.

Pyrazinamide is an antibiotic that fights bacteria. It’s an antibiotic that also works by stopping the rise of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial diseases. It won’t work for viral diseases (for instance, frequent colds and influenza).

Pyrazinamide is provided in conjunction with other medicines and shouldn’t be used independently. You may have to take pyrazinamide for the initial two months of your entire course of therapy.

Pyrazinamide Side Effects:

Common side effects include

  • Nausea,
  • Vomiting, or
  • Moderate muscular /joint pain

If any of these effects persist or worsen, then tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Serious side effects:

Tell your physician immediately if any of these unlikely but severe side effects occur: symptoms of liver disorder (for example,

  • Persistent nausea/vomiting,
  • Abnormal fatigue,
  • severe stomach/abdominal pain,
  • Yellowing eyes/skin, dark pee,
  • Debilitating /swollen joints.
  • Critical allergic response, such as rash, itching/swelling (particularly of this face/tongue/throat),
  • Acute nausea,
  • Difficulty breathing.

Note: This isn’t a comprehensive list of potential side effects.

Pyrazinamide Mechanism

Pyrazinamide diffuses into M. tuberculosis, in which the enzyme pyrazinamidase extends pyrazinamide into the active type pyrazinoic acid. Under acidic conditions, the pyrazinoic acid, which gradually flows out, transforms into the protonated conjugate acid, which is considered to diffuse back to the bacilli and collect. The net effect is that more pyrazinoic acid collects within the bacillus in acid pH than neutral pH. Pyrazinoic acid has been considered to inhibit the enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) I, which is needed by the bacterium to synthesize fatty acids.

Additionally, it has been indicated that the accumulation of pyrazinoic acid disrupts membrane potential and interferes with energy creation, which is essential for the survival of M. tuberculosis in an acidic site of infection.

Pyrazinoic acid has also been demonstrated to bind to the ribosomal protein S1 (RpsA) and inhibit trans-translation. This may describe the ability of the drug to kill dormant mycobacteria.

Use in pregnancy & Breast Feeding.

  • This medication isn’t suggested to be used during pregnancy unless absolutely needed. Ask your physician about the possible benefits and risks before deciding to take this medication.
  • This medication is excreted in breast milk. The benefits and risks must be discussed with the physician before taking this medication.

Pyrazinamide Dosage

The recommended dose for regular unsupervised 2-month therapy:

  • The usual maximum Adult dose Under 50kg bodyweight is three pills or 1.5 grams daily.
  • The usual maximum dose for 50kg and above body weight is four pills or 2g daily.
  • The usual children’s dose is 35mg/kg daily.

The recommended dose for irregular supervised 2-month therapy:

  • The usual maximum Adult dose Under 50kg bodyweight is 4 pills or 2g three times every week.
  • The usual maximum adult dose for 50kg and more than bodyweight is five pills or 2.5 grams three times every week.
  • Usually, children dose 50mg/kg 3 times every week.
  • Pyrazinamide’ ought to be used with at least another powerful antituberculous medication.
  • The usage of pyrazinamide in conjunction with treatment doesn’t change the approved dosages of additional antituberculous agents.
  • Use in the older: The overall concerns outlined above should also apply to older individuals.

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