Drugs

Pyrazinamide: Uses, Side effects, Dosage

Pyrazinamide is a antitubercular medication which helps to deal with tuberculosis and lessens the spread of disease. It needs to be taken with other medications to protect against the spread of disease. This medication isn’t recommended in patients with liver disease or severe gout.

Pyrazinamide is an antibiotic that fights bacteria. It’s an antibiotic also works by stopping the rise of bacteria.This antibiotic treats only bacterial diseases . It won’t work for viral diseases (for instance, frequent cold, influenza).

Pyrazinamide is provided in conjunction with other medicines and shouldn’t be used independently. You might have to take pyrazinamide for just the initial two months of your entire course of therapy.

Pyrazinamide Side Effects:

Common side effects include

  • Nausea,
  • Vomiting, or
  • Moderate muscular /joint pain

If any of these effects persist or worsen, then tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Serious side effects:

Tell your physician immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: symptoms of liver disorder (for example,

  • Persistent nausea/vomiting ,
  • Abnormal fatigue  ,
  • severe stomach/abdominal pain,
  • Yellowing eyes/skin, dark pee ,
  • Debilitating /swollen joints.
  • Critical allergic response, such as: rash, itching/swelling (particularly of this face/tongue/throat),
  • Acute nausea ,
  • Difficulty breathing.

Note: This isn’t a comprehensive list of potential side effects.

Pyrazinamide Mechanism

Pyrazinamide diffuses into M. tuberculosis, in which the enzyme pyrazinamidase extends pyrazinamide into the active type pyrazinoic acid. Under acidic conditions, the pyrazinoic acid which gradually flows out transforms to the protonated conjugate acid, which is considered to diffuse back to the bacilli and collect. The net effect is that more pyrazinoic acid collects within the bacillus in acid pH than neutral pH. Pyrazinoic acid has been considered to inhibit the enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) I, which is needed by the bacterium to synthesise fatty acids.

Additionally, it has been indicated that the accumulation of pyrazinoic acid disrupts membrane potential and interferes with energy creation, essential for survival of M. tuberculosis for an acidic site of infection.

Pyrazinoic acid has also been demonstrated to bind to the ribosomal protein S1 (RpsA) and inhibit trans-translation. This may describe the ability of the drug to kill dormant mycobacteria

Use in pregnancy & Breast Feeding

  • This medication isn’t suggested to be used during pregnancy unless absolutely needed. Ask your physician about the possible benefits and risks before deciding to take this medication.
  • This medication is excreted in breast milk. The benefits and risk must be discussed with the physician before taking this medication.

Pyrazinamide Dosage

Recommended dose for normal unsupervised 2-month therapy:

  • Usual maximum Adults dose  Under 50kg bodyweight is 3 pills or 1.5grams daily.
  • Usual maximum dose for 50kg and above bodyweight is 4 pills or 2g daily.
  • Usual children dose is 35mg/kg daily.

Recommended dose for irregular supervised 2-month therapy:

  • Usual maximum Adults dose Under 50kg bodyweight : 4 pills or 2g three times every week.
  • Usual maximum adult dose for 50kg and more than bodyweight: 5 pills or 2.5gram three times every week.
  • Usual children dose 50mg/kg 3 times every week.
  • Pyrazinamide’ ought to be used with at least another powerful antituberculous medication.
  • The usage of’Pyrazinamide’ in conjunction treatment doesn’t change the approved dosages of additional antituberculous agents.
  • Use in the older: The overall concerns outlined above should also apply to older individuals.
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