Alfentanil: Uses, Side Effects, Dosage

Alfentanil is an artificial opioid analgesic, Introduced in 1980 and Its is less Potent (1/5th-1/10th ) and has 1/3rd the duration of action of Fentanyl.

  • It is indicated for analgesia and suppression of respiratory activity in mechanically ventilated patients on medical care and to produce analgesic cover for painful maneuvers. it’ll aid compliance with mechanical ventilation and tolerance of the endotracheal tube. intravenous bolus doses of Alfentanil (0.5 mg/ml) could also be used to give further pain relief throughout brief painful procedures like physiotherapy, endotracheal suction, etc. Despite being mechanically ventilated , patients could also be awake in the presence of adequate analgesia.
  • Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as each positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for gdp on the G-protein complex. because the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP placed at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. after, the discharge of sensitive neurotransmitters like substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine is suppressed. Opioids conjointly inhibit the discharge of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon. Alfentanil’s analgesic activity is, presumably, because of its conversion to morphine. Opioids shut N-type voltage-operated Ca channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inside rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This leads to hyperpolarization and reduced neuronic excitability.
  • Common side effects of Alfentanil include:low blood oxygen,nausea, vomiting,sleepiness, dizziness,itching, muscular rigidity,low blood pressure,slowed respiration, confusion, injection site pain, agitation, and itchiness, drowsiness.
  • Respiratory depression and withdrawal symptoms can occur within the baby if alfentanil is employed during delivery; conjointly inhalation pneumonia and gastric stasis have been reported in the mother if employed in the labor.

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