Hydrochlorothiazide belongs to a group of drugs called diuretics. It works by causing the kidneys to get rid of excess water and salt from the body into the urine.


  • Hydrochlorothiazide is used alone or in combination with other drugs to treat Hypertension (high blood pressure). Hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat edema Or Swelling caused by various medical problems, including liver disease, heart, And kidney diseases and to treat edema caused by using certain medications including estrogen and corticosteroids.
  • Hydrochlorothiazide may also be used to treat patients with diabetes insipidus and to prevent kidney stones in patients with high levels of calcium in their blood.
  • It is a prescription drug. It comes as a capsule, tablet or solution that you take by mouth.

Mechanism Of Action :

Hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide water pill, inhibits water reabsorption within the nephron by inhibiting the sodium-chloride symporter in the distal convoluted tubule, that is responsible for 5% of total sodium reabsorption. Normally, the sodium-chloride symporter transports sodium and chloride from the lumen into the epithelial cell lining the distal convoluted tube-shaped structure. The energy for this can be provided by a sodium gradient established by sodium-potassium ATPases on the basolateral membrane. Once sodium has entered the cell, it’s transported out into the basolateral interstitium via the sodium-potassium ATPase, causing a rise in the osmolarity of the interstitium, thereby establishing an osmotic gradient for water reabsorption. By obstruction the sodium-chloride symporter, hydrochlorothiazide effectively reduces the osmotic gradient and water reabsorption throughout the tubule.

Hydrochlorothiazide In Pregnancy:

Many studies including a big data of almost 7000 neonates exposed to diuretics during pregnancy did not find an increased risk of adverse effects, such as fetal growth restriction birth defects, thrombocytopenia, or diabetes, among neonates exposed to diuretics in utero.The drug should be used if it is clearly needed. If you are diabetic, or allergic to sulfa medications, you should not use Hydrochlorothiazide.

Forms And Strength :

Available in Oral Tablet as both Generic (Hydrochlorothiazide) And Brand (Microzide):

  • Strengths: 12.5 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg


  • The usual adult dose for treating edema is 25-100 mg once daily or in divided doses.
  • The usual adult dose for hypertension is 12.5 to 50 mg once daily.

Hydrochlorothiazide Side effects

Side effects include

  • Low blood pressure,
  • Nausea
  • Weakness,
  • Light sensitivity (rash caused by sunlight),
  • Impotence, and
  • Abdominal pain.

More serious side effects include

  • pancreatitis,
  • jaundice,
  • electrolyte disturbances, and
  • anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic reaction).

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