What are Antidotes?
The Word Antidote Derived From A Greek Word “antididonai” Which Means Give Against. Antidotes Definition: ”Antidotes are Any Substance which Is Used To oppose the effects of poisons without causing any damage to The body”.
How The Poison Enter Into The Body?
The Poison In Any Form may be taken in by the breath Or swallowed, Absorbed Through the thinner and more delicate mucous membranes, Or absorbed through the skin, or implanted by stings, bites, or other wounds.
There Are A lot Of Antidotes In The Medical Field Today But Some Antidotes Are Very Important And Need To Be Remembered Because Of Their Frequent Use In The Emergency Situations. Knowledge About Antidotes Is Very Important For All Medical Professionals Especially Those Who Are Working In Health Care Settings. Here Are Some Of The Types And List Of Very Important And Frequently Used Antidotes ;
1: Universal Antidotes :
This type of antidote is Given when an unknown poison is ingested
(1) Powdered charcoal 2 parts
(2) Magnesium oxide 1 part
(3) Tannic Acid 1 Part
2: Chemical Antidotes :
These substances neutralize the chemical action or oxidize the poison into a nontoxic or insoluble form
- Dilute alkali(milk of magnesia)
- Dilute acetic acid,
- Potassium permanganate
- Tannin(strong tea).
3: Physiological or pharmacological Antidotes
These produce effects opposite to that of poison
- Naloxone for morphine,
- Atropine and oxime for organophosphorus poison,
- N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen
4: Mechanical or physical Antidotes :
These substances prevent the absorption of poison by their presence
- Activated charcoal is used for strychnine.
- Emulcents(fats, oils, milk, egg albumin) are used for corrosive and irritant poisoning,
- Bulky food used for glass poisoning And mineral poisoning(dose 30-60 gms for children and 60-100gms for adults)
5: Chelating agents:
These are substances which form chelates (nonionized complexes) with cations. These are mostly used in heavy metal poisoning
- N-penicillamine for mercury, lead, copper
- BAL(dimercaprol) is used in heavy metal poisons
- EDTA is used in Arsenic, mercury, lead
- Versenate is used in Arsenic, mercury, and lead
- Desferrioxamine is used for iron.
Important Antidotes List:[table id=5 /]
Patients with poisoning characteristics should normally be hospitalized. Patients who have taken delayed-action toxins should also be admitted, even if they appear to be well. The delayed-action poison includes aspirin, iron, a tricyclic antidepressant, paracetamol, and co-phenotropic. The effects of the modified release preparations are also delayed.
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