Cyclosporine belongs to a class of medications known as immunosuppressants. Cyclosporine is used to prevent organ rejection in people who have had a liver, kidney, or heart transplant. It is usually taken along with other medications to make your new organ function normally. It is also used in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis.
Mechanism of action
Cyclosporine binds to cyclophilin. The complex then inhibits calcineurin, which is normally responsible for activating the transcription of interleukin 2. Cyclosporine also inhibits the production of lymphokines and the release of interleukin. In ophthalmic applications, the exact mechanism of action is unknown. It is believed that the cyclosporin emulsion acts as a partial immunomodulator in patients whose production of tears due to ocular inflammation associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca is suppressed.
The most common side effects of cyclosporin are:
- Low levels of magnesium in your body
- Blood clots in the kidneys
- Stomach ache
- Hair growth in certain areas
- Increase in the size of your gums
Serious side effects and their symptoms may include:
- Liver damage
- Kidney damage
- The problems of the heart.
- Pulmonary problems.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it before taking cyclosporine, or if you have any other allergies This product may contain inactive ingredients that may cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
1. Usual dose in adults for organ transplantation: rejection prophylaxis
The Initial dose is 15 mg/kg orally from 4 to 12 hours before transplant; Although a single dose of 14 to 18 mg/kg was used in most clinical trials, most physicians prefer the lower end of the scale; The lowest initial doses are commonly used for kidney transplantation in the ranges of 10 to 14 mg/kg/day while for Maintenance dose- the initial single daily dose is continued postoperatively for 1 to 2 weeks and then reduced by 5% per week at a maintenance dose of 5 to 10 mg/kg/day; Some doctors prefer to reduce the maintenance dose to 3 mg/kg/day in some patients with kidney transplant without an apparent increase in rejection rates.
2. Usual dose in adults for rheumatoid arthritis
The Initial dose is 1.25 mg/kg orally 2 times a day; The onset of the effect usually occurs between 4 and 8 weeks. While the Maximum dose is 4 mg/kg/day orally divided into 2 doses.
3. Usual dose in adults for psoriasis
The Initial dose is 1.25 mg/kg orally 2 times a day for at least 4 weeks. While Maximum dose is 4 mg / kg / day in 2 divided doses.