Glaucoma: Causes And Treatment

What’s Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is an eye disorder which, if untreated, may harm the optic nerve of their eye and cause permanent visual loss. It’s normally associated with increased pressure within the eye (intraocular pressure, or IOP). Increased intraocular pressure effects from increased production or reduced drainage of aqueous humor, a transparent fluid inside the front part of the eye. The consequent increase in pressure inside the eye will eventually damage the optic nerve. This increase in intraocular pressure is undoubtedly the most frequent risk factor for vision loss because of glaucoma.

Many factors are associated with an elevated probability of developing nausea; a number of which can be raised intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal thickness, family background, cultural background, and increasing age. Glaucoma most frequently affects both eyes.


The damage brought on by glaucoma can not be reversed. But therapy and routine checkups will help slow or protect against vision loss, particularly in you catch the disease in its first phase.

The objective of glaucoma treatment is to reduce pressure on your eye (intraocular pressure). Based upon your circumstances, your choices might consist of eyedrops, laser therapy or surgery.


Glaucoma treatment frequently begins with prescription eyedrops. These may help reduce eye pressure by enhancing how fluid drains out of the eye or by lowering the amount of fluid that your attention makes.

These raise the outflow of the fluid within your eye (aqueous humor) and decrease pressure on your eye. Potential side effects include mild reddening and stinging of the eyes, darkening of the iris, changes in the pigment of their lashes or eyebrow skin, and blurry vision. These decrease the generation of fluid in mind, thus lowering blood pressure on your eye (intraocular pressure). Potential side effects include difficulty breathing, slowed heart rate, lower blood pressure, fatigue and impotence. These decrease the generation of aqueous humor and boost outflow of the fluid in mind. Potential side effects include a irregular heartbeat; high blood pressure; exhaustion; reddish, swollen or itchy eyes; and dry mouth. Rarely used for glaucoma, these medications can lower the generation of fluid in the own eye. Potential side effects include a metallic flavor, frequent urination, and tingling in the fingers and feet. These raise the outflow of fluid out of your eye. A good illustration is pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine). Side effects include younger students, potential fuzzy or dark vision, and nearsightedness.

Following are some of the most commonly used eye drops for Glaucoma.Different glaucoma eye drops are categorized from the active ingredient compound which will help make the medication work.


Employed in many different glaucoma eye drops, beta-blockers have been at once that the medication of first choice in treating glaucoma. These medications work by reducing fluid (aqueous) generation from the eye and are now often prescribed as an adjunct to or in conjunction with prostaglandins.

These eye drops have the capability to decrease heart rate and might cause negative side effects in people with specific heart problems, lung problems (such as emphysema), diabetes, diabetes, depression or other problems. For all these reasons, be certain that you speak about your physician in detail with your eye physician before using beta-blockers.

Examples of beta-blockers utilized in glaucoma therapy are Timoptic XE (Merck), Istalol(ISTA) and Betoptic S (Alcon).

These medications work by diminishing rate of aqueous humor production and may be used by itself or in conjunction with additional anti-glaucoma eye drops.

These medications work by diminishing rate of aqueous humor production. They are normally utilized in conjunction with additional anti-glaucoma eye drops rather than independently. This type of drug can also be utilized in oral form (tablets ). Common side effects experienced with this particular classification of eye fall comprise burning, a sour flavor, stomach reactions and eye discomfort (ocular injection).

The FDA-approved eye drops within this category include Trusopt (Merck) and Azopt (Alcon). Approximately half of patients cannot tolerate oral CAIs because of their unwanted side effects, including fatigue, depression, lack of appetite, weight loss, loss of libido, kidney stones, metallic taste and tingling in fingers and feet (peripheral neuropathies).


These glaucoma eye drops frequently have the ideal user compliance as they’re required only once every day. Prostaglandins normally operate by relaxing muscles in the eye’s interior construction allowing much better outflow of fluids, thereby reducing buildup of eye strain .

Potential side effects include burning and stinging , eye shade alter, and lengthening and lengthening of the lashes.


These medications work by increasing the outflow of aqueous humor from the eye. They are often utilized to control IOP in narrow-angle glaucoma. These eye drops cause the student to constrict, which helps in opening the narrowed or obstructed angle in which drainage occurs.

Common side effects experienced by these kinds of eye drops comprise forehead ache, pupil constriction, burning, and decreased night vision. FDA-approved drugs in this category include pilocarpine, carbachol, echothiophate and demecarium.

Oral medicines

If eyedrops alone do not attract your attention pressure down to the desirable level, your physician can also prescribe an oral medicine, normally a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Potential side effects include frequent nausea, tingling in the fingers and feet, depression, stomach upset, and kidney stones.

Surgery as well as other remedies

Other treatment options include laser treatment and various surgical procedures. Potential complications include soreness, inflammation, disease, inflammation, bleeding, dangerously low or high eye strain, and lack of eyesight. Some kinds of eye surgery can accelerate the growth of cataracts.

You will want to realize your physician for follow-up tests. And you will eventually have to undergo further procedures if your eye pressure starts to grow or other changes happen on your eye.

These techniques are Meant to enhance the drainage of fluid inside the eye, reducing pressure:

Laser treatment. Laser trabeculoplasty (truh-BEK-u-low-plas-tee) is also an alternative for those who have open-angle glaucoma. It is performed in your physician’s office. He or she uses a laser beam to start blocked channels in the trabecular meshwork. It could take a couple weeks before the complete impact of the process becomes evident.
Dentistry operation. Using a surgical procedure called a trabeculectomy (truh-bek-u-LEK-tuh-me), your surgeon creates an opening at the white of the eye (sclera) and eliminates part of the trabecular meshwork. Within this process, your eye doctor inserts a tiny tube in mind. Your physician might indicate a minimally invasive procedure to remove tissue in the trabecular meshwork with a little electrocautery device known as a Trabecutome.

Fixing acute angle-closure glaucoma

Intense angle-closure glaucoma is a medical crisis. If you are diagnosed with this illness, you are going to want urgent care to decrease the pressure on your eye. This normally will require both drugs and laser or other surgical procedures.

You might have a process referred to as a laser peripheral iridotomy in which the doctor makes a little hole in your iris using a laser. This permits fluid (aqueous humor) to flow , relieving eye strain.

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