Classification of Cephalosporins Antibiotics

CephalosporinsCephalosporins are a large group of Antibiotics derived from the mold Called Cephalosporium.Cephalosporins belong to a class Of antibiotics known as beta-lactams.

Cephalosporins Uses:

These drugs are used to treat bacterial infections including:

  • Skin infections
  • Ear infections
  • Kidney infections
  • Pneumonia
  • Meningitis
  • Bone infections
  • Strep throat and other throat infections
  • Sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea

Cephalosporins Side Effects

Following side effects May be seen With the use of Cephalosporin:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Stomach discomfort
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash or itching
  • Thrush (white fungus in the mouth), yeast infection, or other fungal infection
  • Blood abnormalities

Classification of Cephalosporin Antibiotics

First Generation

CephalosporinDoseRouteDosing IntervalSpectrumRenal

 

1st  Generation (Narrow Spectrum)

Cefazolin1-2gmIV/IM8Streptococci b;Staphylococcus aureus. cyes
Cephalothin1-2gmIV/IM4-6yes
Cephapirin0.5-1gmIV/IM4-6yes
Cephalexin250-500mgPO6yes
Cefadroxil500mgPO12yes
Cephradine250mg
<500mg>
PO
PO
6
12
yes

Second Generation:

CephalosporinDoseRouteDosing IntervalSpectrumRenal

2nd Generation (Intermediate Spectrum)

Cefamandole1-2gmIV/IM4-6Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis.yes
Cefuroxime0.75-1.5gm
250-500mg
IV/IM
PO
8
12
yes
Cefoxitin1-2gmIV/IM4-6yes
Cefotetan1-2gmIV/IM12yes
Cefmetazole2gmIV6-12yes
Cefaclor250-500mgPO8yes
Cefprozil250-500mgPO12-24yes
Cefpodoxime200-400mgPO12yes
Loracarbef200-400mgPO12yes
 

Third Generation:

CephalosporinDoseRouteDosing IntervalSpectrumRenal

3rd Generation (Broad Spectrum)

Cefotaxime1-2gmIV/IM6-8Pseudomonas aeruginosa e; Serratia; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; activity for S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae,Enterobacteriaceaeyes
Ceftriaxone1-2gmIV/IM12-24
Ceftizoxime1-2gmIV/IM8-12yes
Ceftazidime1-2gmIV/IM8yes
Cefoperazone1-2gmIV/IM12
Cefixime400mg
200mg
PO
PO
24
12
yes

Fourth Generation:

They are resistant to beta lactamases.

CephalosporinDoseRouteDosing IntervalSpectrumRenal

4th Generation (Broad Spectrum)

Cefipime2gmIV12 hoursTheir spectra is comparable to 3rdgeneration but they show more resistance to betalectamasesYes

Fifth Generation:

These are extended spectrum antibiotics.

CephalosporinDoseRouteDosing IntervalSpectrum

5th Generation (Extended Spectrum)

Ceftaroline600 mgIV12 hoursPneumonia,  skin and soft tissue infections
Ceftobiprole500mgIV12 hoursMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

 

References: 

  1. Henry F. Chambers. Beta-Lactam & Other Cell Wall- & Membrane-Active Antibiotics. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, edited by Bertram G. Katzung. McGraw Hill, USA, 2007.

 

 

  1. Tumah H. Fourth-generation cephalosporins: in vitro activity against nosocomial gram-negative bacilli. Chemotherapy. 2005 May;51(2-3):80-5.
  2. The Merck Manual of Medical Information. Mark H. Beers et al., eds. 2nd Home Edition. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck; 2003.
  3. Brunton LL, Parker K, Blumenthal D, et al. The goodman and gilman’s manual of pharmacological therapeutics. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007.
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