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Psychopharmacology: Basic Concept | Medications | Mechanism |

Psychopharmacology is a branch of Pharmacology and psychiatry that deals with medications used to treat mental disorders. This field has come a long way in recent years, and many effective treatments are now available for mental illnesses. The study of medications and their effects on the human body is pharmacology, and the study of drugs only treating mental disorders is known as Psychopharmacology.  Every day some discoveries help us understand how these drugs work, allowing medical experts to better treat mental disorders with an improved understanding of the mechanism of medicines on our brain and nerve system. So, psychopharmacology is the scientific study of how different drugs affect mood, sensation, and thinking. Anyone who studies the effects of psychotropic drugs on the human brain is known as Psychopharmacologist. Psychopharmacologists need to understand all the clinically relevant principles of pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, such as protein binding half-life, which can vary greatly depending on everyone’s genes, mechanism of action of all psychotropic drugs, and interactions between different medications. The use and application of psychoactive substances have been used throughout history. Still, it’s only recently that these applications have attained the same level as scrutiny given to lab-made compounds. The term “psychopharmacology” was likely coined by David Macht in the 1920s when he introduced this new field that studied how different drugs affect brain function. Psychopharmacologists should understand basic concepts like how these psychoactive drugs work. This article will specifically discuss Neurotransmitters and Hormones because these drugs work by acting on them. Neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters are the messengers of our body’s systems. They are endogenous chemicals that allow signals to be passed between cells in different parts or organs while transmitting information from one cell type (such as muscle) to another through these receptor channels. Communication between two neurons happens in the synaptic cleft (the small gap between the synapses of neurons). The brain needs neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin because they regulate many important functions, including heart rate and many other functions. Modern Psychopharmacology is largely due to advances in our understanding of chemical neurotransmission. Knowing about chemical neurotransmission is essential if you truly want to understand how drugs impact our brains. Some of the most popular psychoactive drugs affect neurotransmitters and can be viewed as chemicals through which neurons primarily communicate. Following are some of the mechanisms by which psychoactive drugs affect the Neurotransmitter; One way they do this is by serving as a precursor for the Neurotransmitter; Others include the blocking of neurotransmitter production, Some drugs are also responsible for preventing the storage of neurotransmitters in the presynaptic vesicle. They can also wholly activate or inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, Sometimes they can restore or block the post-synaptic receptors, Primarily inhibit neurotransmitter reuptake by the presynaptic neuron. Psychoactive drugs almost exert their mind-altering effects by acting on these neurotransmitters and modifying one or more aspects of synaptic transmission. Here is a list of essential neurotransmitters affected by psychotropic drugs; Acetylcholine—this Neurotransmitter is involved in the body’s learning, memory, and mood. It’s a part of the autonomic nervous system that contracts smooth muscles, increases bodily secretions, dilates blood vessels, and slows the heart rate. Dopamine— is another neurotransmitter in motor circuits for reward and pleasure centers. This one is also involved in Parkinson’s Disease and Schizophrenia. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid)—This NT involves anxiety, epilepsy, fear, stress, and inhibitory neurotransmitter diseases. It blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain; a low level of this NT can cause chronic pain, anxiety, and epilepsy.  Glutamate— is an amino acid and one of the brain’s most commonly found excitatory neurotransmitters. It helps in learning, memory, communication, and excitatory neurotransmitter diseases. Norepinephrine—(another name is Noradrenaline) is a naturally occurring chemical in the body that acts as a stress hormone and Neurotransmitter. The adrenal medulla in the human brain produces this hormone in reaction to low BP as it cause constriction of blood vessels, that’s why it causes an increase in blood pressure. Too much of this Neurotransmitter can cause anxiety, high blood pressure, increased heart rate, stress, and sleep disturbances. Norepinephrine can be crucial in your body’s “fight-or-flight” response. Serotonin— Also known as 5HT, is a monoamine neurotransmitter primarily found in the digestive system but involved in aggression, wound healing, bone health, depression, desire, mood, sleep, schizophrenia, and sexual desire. Hormones Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands into the bloodstream and convey messages within the body to act on the distant target cells. At the same time, the neurotransmitters are secreted by nerve cells in the brain and travel across the synapse to act on the nearby cells. Hormones work slowly, over time, affecting many different processes like growth, development, and metabolism, while the Neurotransmitter is fast and short-acting.  Psychoactive drugs can also work by affecting the communication between cells through hormones. Hormones and neurotransmitters work in very different ways. Neurotransmitters can only travel a microscopic distance before reaching their target at the other side of your synaptic cleft. At the same time, hormones often have long-distance traveling abilities that allow them to reach cells anywhere throughout our bodies. Here is how the psychoactive drugs work on hormones; Psychotropic medications can change the secretion of many hormones; Hormones may also improve the behavioral responses to drugs. Some hormones themselves sometimes have psychoactive properties; and The secretion of some hormones, mainly those dependent on the pituitary gland, is controlled by neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Psychotropic Medication/Drugs Psychopharmacology [1] can be further classified into many different classes of psychotropic medications. In this section of the article, we will discuss them one by one; Antidepressants Antidepressants are a class of medications that can relieve symptoms in people who suffer from depression, social anxiety disorder, or other conditions. Antidepressants are a medication that has been used for over 50 years. They’re increasingly popular these days, too. These drugs can cause various side effects, including tremors, sleep disturbances, Nausea, nervousness, and sexual problems.  The list of medications for depression is further classified into many different groups of drugs like SSRIs, SNRIs, Tricyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, and Noradrenaline

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Pharmacogenomics: A Frontier in Personalized Medicine

Pharmacogenomics, also known as pharmacogenetics, stands at the forefront of a revolutionary era in medicine and is a research field exploring how our genes influence how we react to medications. The ultimate aim is to assist doctors in choosing the right drugs and doses that match each individual. This field combines the principles of pharmacology and genomics to tailor drug treatments to the unique genetic characteristics of each patient. The implications of pharmacogenomics are far-reaching, promising a paradigm shift in healthcare towards personalized medicine. Understanding the Basics At its core, pharmacogenomics explore into the genetic variations that affect drug metabolism, response, and toxicity. The human genome is a vast landscape of genes, each carrying instructions for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes crucial for various bodily functions, including drug metabolism. One of the key focuses of pharmacogenomics is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are variations in a single DNA building block that can significantly impact drug metabolism. These genetic variations can lead to variations in drug efficacy and safety among individuals. Clinical Applications The practical application of pharmacogenomics is already transforming clinical practice. Genetic testing can identify patients with specific genetic markers that may influence their response to certain drugs. By tailoring treatment plans based on individual genetic profiles, healthcare providers can optimize drug therapy, minimize adverse reactions, and improve overall patient outcomes. For example, the anticoagulant warfarin has been a focal point of pharmacogenomic research. Variations in the genes CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have been identified as major contributors to individual differences in warfarin response. By understanding a patient’s genetic makeup, healthcare providers can now prescribe more precise doses, reducing the risk of bleeding or clotting complications. Challenges and Opportunities While pharmacogenomics holds immense promise, it is not without its challenges. The complexity of human genetics, ethical considerations, and the need for widespread adoption of genetic testing are all factors that must be addressed. Additionally, integrating pharmacogenomic data into electronic health records and ensuring proper education for healthcare professionals are ongoing challenges. Despite these hurdles, the potential benefits are too significant to ignore. The field opens up avenues for more effective and safer drug therapies, particularly in areas such as oncology, psychiatry, and cardiovascular medicine. The Future of Medicine Pharmacogenomics is paving the way for a future where healthcare is truly individualized. As our understanding of the human genome deepens, so too will our ability to predict drug responses with greater accuracy. This not only holds promise for optimizing current drug therapies but also for the development of new drugs targeted specifically to individuals or subpopulations. In conclusion, pharmacogenomics represents a groundbreaking frontier in medicine. As a pharmacist, I am excited to witness and contribute to the ongoing research and advancements in this field. The journey towards personalized medicine has just begun, and pharmacogenomics is a crucial driver propelling us into an era where treatments are as unique as the individuals they aim to help.

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Clinical Pharmacology—Definition | Scope | Basic Concept

Clinical pharmacology is the study of medications and their effects on human beings. This branch of basic pharmacology emphasizes how pharmacological principles can be applied in real life. The work of a clinical pharmacologist is vital in understanding how medications are used and what they do for you. Clinical pharmacologists are the physicians, scientists, and pharmacy professionals specializing in developing new drug therapies and ensuring that medicines are used safely and effectively. They work across many settings, including academia or industry, to study how medications can be used more effectively for different illnesses. Clinical pharmacologists also design and evaluate clinical trials to create regulation guidelines for drug use in the office setting and globally. They work directly with patients during their studies while also participating in experimental research that may lead them into adverse reaction investigations or interactions between different medications we take every day like over-the-counter drugs (OTC). The clinical pharmacist is an integral part of our health care team because they help us stay healthy by providing medication and assisting physicians when it comes time making decisions regarding what should be prescribed instead. Clinical pharmacologists use this knowledge to help doctors prescribe medicine more rationally, reducing side effects while maximizing its effectiveness for patients to get better faster with less hassle from drugs or other treatments that may work just as well. Clinical pharmacology is a fascinating field of study that educates healthcare professionals about the interaction between drugs and humans. This includes everything from pharmacokinetics to pharmacodynamics, pharmaceutical chemistry to biochemistry, drug-drug interaction, clinical trial, and even human toxicologies. Modern clinical pharmacologists not only use data analysis skills to analyze the information gathered from their experiments, but they also train with modeling and simulation techniques such as population analysis. How to become a clinical pharmacologist? To become a pharmacologist, you’ll need first to earn your degree in pharmacy or complete either an M.D., Pharm D, or Ph.D. Once that’s done, it will be time for license examination, which can take several years depending on where they reside and any additional qualifications required by each state board of medicine before pursuing this career path successfully. Apart from having these degrees, you must have 5 years of experience and excellent verbal and written communication skills. How much does a Clinical Pharmacologist make—Clinical pharmacology salary? This is a tricky question because it depends on your expertise and the state or country you are living in. For example, Clinical pharmacologists in the U.S. can make anywhere between $50K to around $500K as per the glass door jobs portal. According to, the average clinical pharmacologist can earn between 100k-130k.

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What a Degree in Pharmacology Has to Offer You?

The field of pharmacology is highly respected throughout the world. It requires years of training, extending from undergraduate studies to graduate studies. The average pharmacologist spends a decade to twelve years in college learning about pharmaceuticals. Even after they have graduated, they must pass an examination administered by their state to be licensed and work as a pharmacologist. Knowing what is in store for them commitment-wise is important as it allows them to put the time and money into preparing for a rewarding career in pharmacology. Researching the field and knowing what it takes to pass their licensing exam is imperative to their success. Students who take the time to explore requirements outside of their degrees have the upper hand because they know what their next steps are in their career paths. This short guide explains the advantages of becoming a pharmacologist including salary information and what niches exist within the career field. It also mentions the best ways to prepare for the USMLE exam and the graduate’s first job in the industry. It serves as a resource that can be reviewed as many times as needed to prepare for a successful pharmacology career. What becoming a pharmacologist can do for you? Jobs in the medical field are always in high demand. Pharmacologists provide valuable insight into the industry through the services they provide. Pharmaceuticals are lifesaving medications administered to people with a myriad of physical and mental health issues that need treatment. 1. Provides you with a competitive salary and benefits package based on your experience. A pharmacologist can earn over $118,000 as an average base salary. It depends mostly on which company they choose to work for and the number of years of experience they have working in the industry. reports that entry-level pharmacologists can make $82,900, and experienced professionals make up to $147,674. The perks that come with being a pharmacologist are well-documented. In addition to providing you with job security, a competitive salary, and full benefits package, working in the field of pharmacology allows you to fulfill your personal goal of helping people be well. Thanks to your extensive knowledge of pharmaceuticals, you’re able to play a role in your customers’ health regimens. 2. Allows you to narrow your focus to the niche of your choice. Furthermore, you can go into whichever niche interests you, thanks to the diverse field of pharmacology. Behavioral pharmacology is one very enticing option because it studies the effects of drugs on a person’s behavior and how their behavior affects the effectiveness of the pharmaceuticals taken. Biochemical pharmacology studies the chemicals that makeup drugs and how they interact with one another and the brain. 3. Lets you work alone or with others in an environment that promotes growth. Pharmacologists have the option of working alone by starting their own pharmacies or working with other skilled individuals who share a passion for the field of pharmacology. If you love challenges, you’ll enjoy the environment created for you at pharmacological companies nationwide. Advancement opportunities exist for professionals who want to make pharmacology their lifetime careers. If you’re looking for a rewarding profession and want to explore the field of pharmacology, you’ll find researching schools, curriculum, and licensing requirements imperative to your success. Knowing what type of education to pursue and where to get it from helps set you up for success come test time. To practice in any state in the nation, you must pass the USMLE exam to work as a pharmacologist. How students prepare for the USMLE at home? Difficult exams such as the USMLE require extra preparation. Students of pharmacology often rely on online technologies as part of their study routine. They use USMLE exam prep sites to access guides and take practice tests as a way to prepare for their official exam date and time. Many options to choose from, but one that stand from the rest is Lecturio, with their spaced-repetition techniques, an evidence-based learning technique that is usually performed with flashcards designed to enhance cognitive memory of students Having the opportunity to prepare for the examination at home is highly beneficial. It allows students to schedule study time into their current schedules with greater ease. With flexible sessions, they can work around the other obligations in their life without missing opportunities to study for the USMLE. They can also form virtual study groups that allow them to review key concepts and terminology online through streaming services. Facebook Messenger, Zoom, and Skype offer options where students can see and interact with one another while they prepare for the exam they need to take to become pharmacologists. The more time a student puts into studying for the USMLE, the better. Using the tools and resources available for them to choose from gives them a distinct advantage in successfully passing the test. Exam prep sites, printed materials, and study buddies all play a crucial role in the success of the pharmacology student. A rewarding career awaits you as a pharmacologist. A degree in pharmacology has its advantages. Each offers you the opportunity to succeed in a high-demand field full of talented and driven professionals. As a student, you have the opportunity to join an industry with growth opportunities galore. Once you’ve passed your exam, you’ll be able to find work in the niche of your specialty. Being able to help people with a myriad of health conditions is highly beneficial. Knowing that you’ve also chosen a profession with growth opportunities is very exciting. You can start your career making entry-level wages and, within a few short years, be commanding a significantly higher salary based on your experience as a senior pharmacologist.

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What is Pharmacology?: Definition | Basic Concept | Branches |

Pharmacology is said to be the corner stone and one of the most important subjects in the modern pharmacy and medical practice. In this article, you will learn what is Pharmacology, Its basic concept, definition, what is a drug and how it works, what are the different branches of pharmacology. Let’s have a look;   What is Pharmacology? The field of pharmacology is concerned with drugs and how they interact within our bodies. Pharmacologists study the different types, uses for each drug type as well their interactions on normal or abnormal cell function in living organisms Pharmacology looks at how medicinal substances work, their adverse effects, and their interaction with other medications or foods. This subject is at the center of biomedical science, combining chemistry, physiology, and pathology. The person who is an expert in this field is known as Pharmacologist. They work closely with several other fields that make modern biomedical sciences, including neuroscience, molecular and cellular biology, immunology, and cancer biology. Pharmacologist help discovers new drugs to help fight diseases and improve their effectiveness and reduce unwanted adverse effects. This subject explains what the drugs are, what they do for physiological functions, and what the body does with the drug. Pharmacology also explains each drug’s dosage,  why a person may experience side effects when consuming drugs, and why there is such a broad view of the difference between drug actions among different people. Pharmacology also provides research to understand the safety and efficacy of these drugs. Pharmacology vs Pharmacy As we have discussed above it is actually the branch of medical science in which we study drug research, discovery, and the function of cellular and organic functions of these chemical products. While Pharmacy is a health care professional and is the application of the principles learned from pharmacology. Pharmacology vs Pharmacist It is a subject and discipline while Pharmacist is a person who formulates and dispenses medicine. Pharmacists study this in the doctor of pharmacy degree as a subject, and this is the basic cornerstone of modern pharmacy practice. To know what exactly is pharmacology, you need to understand the drug first. What is a Drug? Any chemical substance that is used for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases. A drug is any chemical entity that causes a change in biological function in a living organism. Some drugs are formed naturally inside the body, such as insulin and noradrenaline, etc. Drugs that are human-made or natural and introduced into the body from the outside are called Xenobiotics. For example, are all those medicines such as paracetamol and all other drugs we take orally or on other routes? How do drugs work? Drugs generally work by interacting with receptors on the surface of cells or enzymes within cells. Drugs binding sites and enzyme molecules have a specific 3 dimensional structure that allows only medicines or other molecules that precisely attach to them. What is a Receptor? A drug receptor is a specific target area that binds to a drug and mediates its pharmacological process. These receptors can be present in enzymes, nucleic acids, or proteins that are restrained to particular membranes. When the receptors and the drugs combined they form drug-receptor complexes lead to biological reactions. The strength of the reaction is proportional to the number of drug-receptor complexes. A common way to show the relationship between drug concentration and the biological response is to use a concentration or a dose-response curve. The Protein present in our body in different shapes/structures/forms and has many different functions. Each protein has a particular function and is specific to the type of cell on which it operates. For example, there are certain types of proteins called receptors. Receptors embed in cell surfaces; there are different receptors for different types of cells. The receptors present in liver cells are different than those present in heart cells. The receptor binds to other proteins and chemicals outside the cell, which, in turn, changes how the cell functions. Proteins also work on drug targets. For a drug/medicine to show effects, it must be bound with protein just like a lock and key system. Once it is attached to the receptor, it can have two very crucial effects on the cell. It may produce a change in the response or stop a normal response from the cell. If it produces a change in the response, this will be called an agonist, and if it stops, it will be known as the antagonist. Dose-Response Curve The concept of the dose-response curve is one of the most important concepts of pharmacology. A dose-response curve refers to the relationship between a drug’s effect and the amount of drug given. The dose-response curves relationship is important for understanding the drug’s safe and dangerous levels. The treatment index can be determined and dosing guidelines established. The dose-response curves are drawn on a simple x/y-axis, the drug dose is usually on the x-axis, and the drug response is usually on the y-axis. Most are presented on a logometric scale as opposed to the curvature of the drug response. The Y-axis is often represented by a percentage to indicate the percentage of people who will respond to the drug. When reviewing dose-response curves, an important feature of curves is that it is a graduated relationship. This means that the response to the drug increase with the amount of drug administered. This classification of dose-response curves allows your doctor to adapt the person taking the drug to the prescription. If you increase the dose, the response will also be increased, but at a certain level, the effect and the curve plateau at the top will stop even if you further increase the dose.  This is the point where your body’s ability to detoxify a drug or repair toxic injury has been exceeded. Effective Dose Vs Lethal Dose The effective dose (ED50) is the amount of drug that shows a biological response in the body while the Lethal dose (LD50) is the amount of a

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Whole Pharmacology Classification

Pharmacology is the study of how medicinal substances interact with living systems. Pharmacology is the study of drugs, their nature, their sources, and their properties, absorption, distribution, biotransformation, elimination, interactions, toxicology, and therapeutic applications. Pharmacology is the study of the body’s reaction to drugs or Pharmacology is the study of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a drug. You can learn more Pharmacology ⇐here Here is a list of Pharmacology Classification of drugs which every pharmacist and medical student should know. We already have a shared pharmacology drug classification chart on our Facebook page many times. But here we will share some authentic classification from various Pharmacology books. The Following is a drug classification for nurses, doctors, and pharmacists. Pharmacology classification   1. Adrenergic Antagonists Further classified into a) Alpha Adrenergic Antagonists They can be classified into three groups; List of Drugs  Mainly Alpha 1 antagonists Prazosin Doxazosin Terazosin Tamsulosin Alfuzosin Indoramin Urapidil Mainly Alpha 2 Antagonists: Yohimbine Tolazoline Alpha 1 And Alpha 2 Antagonists: Phenoxybenzamine Phentolamine b) Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists Beta 1 And Beta 2 Antagonists Propranolol Pindolol Penbutolol Nadolol Carteolol Timolol Sotalol Mainly Beta 1 Antagonists Acebutolol Atenolol Alprenolol Betaxolol Celiprolol Metoprolol Esmolol Nebivolol 2. Adrenergic Agonists Direct action These drugs act directly on one or more adrenergic receptors. According to receptor selectivity, they are two types: Non-selective: drugs act on one or more receptors; these are: List of Drugs  Adrenaline (almost all adrenergic receptors). Noradrenaline (acts on α1, α2, β1). Isoprenaline (acts on β1, β2, β3). Dopamine (acts on α1, α2, β1, D1, D2). Selective: drugs which act on a single receptor only; these are further classified into List of Drugs α selective & β selective. α1 selective: Phenylephrine, Methoxamine, Midodrine, Oxymetazoline. α2 selective: α-Methyldopa, clonidine, brimonidine. β1 selective: Dobutamine. β2 selective: Salbutamol/Albuterol, Terbutaline, Salmeterol, Formoterol, Pirbuterol. [1] Indirect action List of Drugs  Amphetamines Cocaine Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Tyramine Nicotine Caffeine Methylphenidate Mixed action Ephedrine Pseudoephedrine Pharmacology Classification 3. Cholinergic  Agonists Direct and indirect-acting Agonists List of Drugs 1. Direct Acting Agonist Drugs: Are further divided into two groups a. Choline Esters Acetylcholine Methacholine Carbachol Bethanechol b. Cholinomimetic alkaloids Muscarine Nicotine Pilocarpine Lobeline 2. Indirect Acting Drugs: List of Drugs  a. Reversibly Acting: Neostigmine Physostigmine Demecarium Pyridostigmine Ambenonium b. Irreversible Acting: Echothiophate Parathion Malathion Tetraethyl Pyrophosphate 4. Pharmacology Classification of Cholinergic Antagonists List of Drugs  Antimuscarinic agents Atropine Benztropine Biperiden Chlorpheniramine Dicyclomine Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Doxepin Doxylamine Glycopyrrolate Ipratropium Orphenadrine Oxitropium Oxybutynin Propantheline bromide Tolterodine Tiotropium Trihexyphenidyl Scopolamine Solifenacin Tropicamide Antinicotinic agents Bupropion Dextromethorphan Doxacurium Hexamethonium Mecamylamine Tubocurarine Also, Read Pain & Inflammation Supplements Relief Factor Review: Does it Works Or a Scam? Arthrozene Review: Does This Joint Supplement Works? Heal n Soothe Review: Does it Work? 5. Pharmacology Classification of Antianginal Drugs List of Drugs  a) Organic Nitrates Nitroglycerin Isosorbide Dinitrate Isosorbide Mononitrate Amyl nitrite b) Calcium Channel Blockers List of Drugs  Further Divided Into 1. Dihydropyridine Nifedipine Nicardipine Amlodipine Nisoldipine Nitrendipine Nimodipine 2. Miscellaneous Drugs Verapamil Diltiazem Bepridil c) Beta-Blockers Further Divided Into 1. ß 1 + ß 2 Antagonists Propranolol Penbutolol Sotalol Pindolol Timolol 2. ß 1 Selective Antagonist Metoprolol Atenolol Esmolol Acebutolol Betaxolol 6. Drugs used in Congestive cardiac failure Drugs Used For Congestive Cardiac Failure are, 1) Drugs used to decrease preload: Diuretics Organic nitrate 2) Drugs which decrease afterload Hydralazine Minoxidil 3) Drugs which decrease both preload and afterload: Captopril Enalapril Lisinopril Fosinopril Quinapril 4) Positive inotropic drugs: They can be further divided into three groups; A. Cardiac glycosides: Digoxin Digitoxin Ouabain Lanatoside. 2) Phosphodiesterase inhibitors: Inamrinonone (Amrinone) Milrinone 3.Sympathomimetics: Dopamine Dobutamine Depoxamine Xamoterol 7. Pharmacology Classification  of Antiplatelet Drugs Antiplatelet List of drugs include: Anagrelide Aspirin clopidogrel prasugrel ticagrelor tirofiban vorapaxar dipyridamole 8.  Anticoagulant Drugs List of drugs in this class include: warfarin dabigatran edoxaban rivaroxaban apixaban Pharmacology drugs classification 9. Diuretics Thiazides diuretics List of Drugs  Chlorothiazide Chlorthalidone Indapamide Hydrochlorothiazide Methyclothiazide Metolazone Loop diuretics List of Drugs  Bumetanide Furosemide Ethacrynate Torsemide Potassium-sparing diuretics Amiloride hydrochloride spironolactone triamterene Related Article  Best Folding Mobility Scooters 20 Best Stethoscopes For Nurses And Doctors Capillus Laser Cap Review Nutrafol Review: Is it worth it? Zyrexin Review: Does it work and Is it Worth It? 10. Pharmacology Classification of Statins Statins that are approved for use in the U.S. include: List of Drugs  Atorvastatin Fluvastatin Lovastatin Pravastatin Rosuvastatin Simvastatin Pitavastatin 11.Thrombolytic Drug Thrombolytic List of Drugs  — include: Anistreplase Reteplase Streptokinase, kabikinase t-PA (class of drugs that includes Activase) TNKase (tenecteplase) Abbokinase, Kinlytic (rokinase) 12. Pharmacology Classification of Sedative Hypnotic 1. Sedative Anxiolytic Drugs  Benzodiazepines List of Drugs  Alprazolam Bromazepam Chlordiazepoxide Clonazepam Clorazepate Diazepam Flurazepam Lorazepam Oxazepam Temazepam Triazolam Barbiturates barbiturates include: Phenobarbital Mephobarbital Amobarbital sodium Butabarbital sodium Secobarbital sodium 2. Non Sedative  Buspirone Gepirone Ipsapirone Tandospirone 13. Antidepressants List of Drugs 1. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline Amoxapine Desipramine Doxepin Imipramine Nortriptyline Protriptyline Trimipramine 2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Citalopram Escitalopram Paroxetine Fluoxetine Fluvoxamine Sertraline 3. Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) Desvenlafaxine Duloxetine Levomilnacipran Milnacipran Venlafaxine 4. Serotonin modulators and stimulators (SMS) Vilazodone Vortioxetine 5. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) Reboxetine Teniloxazine Viloxazine 6. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Isocarboxazid Phenelzine Selegiline Tranylcypromine 14. Antipsychotic Drugs Aripiprazole Asenapine Cariprazine Clozapine Lurasidone Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidone Ziprasidone 15. Anti epileptic Drugs Absence seizures (including typical and atypical absences): List of Drugs Acetazolamide Clonazepam Ethosuximide Lamotrigine Sodium valproate Atonic seizures: Phenobarbital Phenytoin Primidone Sodium valproate Catamenial seizures (menstrual-related): Acetazolamide Clobazam Cluster seizures: Clobazam Episodic disorders: Acetazolamide Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy or SMEI): Stiripentol Focal (partial) seizures: Acetazolamide Carbamazepine Clobazam Clonazepam Eslicarbazepine acetate Gabapentin Lacosamide Lamotrigine Levetiracetam Oxcarbazepine Perampanel Phenobarbital Phenytoin Pregabalin Primidone Retigabine Sodium valproate Tiagabine Topiramate Vigabatrin Zonisamide Focal (partial) seizures with secondary generalisation: Gabapentin Lacosamide Levetiracetam Perampanel Phenobarbital Phenytoin Pregabalin Primidone Retigabine Sodium valproate Tiagabine Topiramate Vigabatrin Zonisamide Focal seizures with secondary generalised tonic clonic seizures: Carbamazepine Eslicarbazepine acetate Lamotrigine Oxcarbazepine Infantile spasms: Nitrazepam Sodium valproate Vigabatrin Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (seizures related to): Levetiracetam Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (seizures related to): Lamotrigine Rufinamide Topiramate Myoclonic seizures: Clonazepam Ethosuximide Phenobarbital Phenytoin Primidone Piracetam Sodium valproate Tonic seizures: Phenobarbital Phenytoin Primidone Sodium valproate Tonic clonic seizures: Acetazolamide Carbamazepine Clobazam Clonazepam Eslicarbazepine acetate Lamotrigine Phenobarbital Phenytoin Primidone Sodium valproate Topiramate West Syndrome with Tuberous Sclerosis: Vigabatrin 16. Pharmacology drugs classification Anesthetic Drugs List of Drugs 

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Top 65 Pharmacology Tips Every Student Should know

Pharmacology is the study of how  medicinal substances interact with living systems. Pharmacology is The study of drugs, their nature, their sources,and their properties,absorption,distribution,biotransformation,elimination,interactions,toxicology and their therapeutic applications. Pharmacology is the study of the body’s reaction to drugs.or Pharmacology is study of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a drug. Its Very Difficult To Summarize the whole Pharmacology but We have collected some very important Points from Various Pharmacology Books and other resources Which will Help Students Pass their exams. Important Pharmacology Points 1-10 1. Amphotericin is active against most fungi and yeasts. It can be used for intestinal candidiasis. 2. Atenolol is a beta-adrenoceptor blocker that, when administered during pregnancy, may cause intrauterine growth restriction, neonatal hypoglycaemia and bradycardia. 3. Trigger factors for migraine include intake of specific food such as caffeine,chocolate, cheese and alcoholic drinks, exposure to light, hunger and missed meals, and air travel. 4. Nalidixic acid is a quinolone that is indicated only for urinary tract infections. 5. Both levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are quinolones. Levofloxacin has greater activity against pneumococci than ciprofloxacin. 6. Levofloxacin, which is a quinolone that has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms including pneumococci.Quinolones are bactericidal. 7. Terazosin is a selective alpha-blocker that relaxes smooth muscle and is indicated in benign prostatic hyperplasia because it increases urinary flow rate and improves obstructive symptoms. Terazosin is also indicated in the manage-ment of mild-to-moderate hypertension. After the first dose a rapid reduction in blood pressure may occur. 8. Norfloxacin is a quinolone antibacterial agent. Quinolones should be used with caution in patients with a history of epilepsy because they may cause confusion, hallucinations and convulsions as side-effects. They may precipitate convulsions in patients with epilepsy and in those with no previous history of convulsions. 9. Tinnitus is an adverse effect of furosemide, especially when it is administered in large parenteral doses, as a rapid administration and in renal impairment.Not all diuretics are associated with tinnitus. 10. Propranolol is a beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent. The antagonist effect is associated with up-regulation of receptors. Once the drug is withdrawn abruptly, adverse reactions may occur due to the up-regulation of the receptors. Important Pharmacology Points 11-20 11. Pseudoephedrine and ephedrine are sympathomimetic agents that stimulate alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, causing constriction of smooth muscles and blood vessels and producing bronchodilatation. They have central nervous system stimulant activity. 12. Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal that is available as an oral gel. The gel is to some extent absorbed from the oral mucosa and, because animal studies have shown that miconazole is fetotoxic, miconazole oral gel should be avoided during pregnancy. 13. Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant that, when administered during the third trimester, may cause tachycardia, irritability and muscle spasms in the neonate. 14. Hyoscine is an antimuscarinic agent that can be used for prophylaxis of motion sickness. Because it has a rapid onset of action it is administered 30 minutes before travelling. Cinnarizine is an antihistamine that is used for the prophylaxis of motion sickness but it has to be administered 2 h before travelling.Cetirizine is a non-sedating antihistamine that is used for symptomatic relief of allergies. 15. Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug, specifically a phenothiazine derivative, that is characterised by pronounced sedative effects. Cautionary labels recommended are to avoid exposure of skin to direct sunlight or sun lamps and a warning that it may cause drowsiness and, if affected, not to drive or operate machinery and to avoid alcoholic drinks. 16. Ceftazidime is a ‘third-generation’ cephalosporin antibacterial agent. It has greater activity than cefuroxime against certain Gram-negative bacteria and less activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Ceftazidime is administered by deep intramuscular injection or intravenous injection or infusion. It is not available as tablets. 17. Salmeterol is a long-acting beta2 agonist that can be used regularly in patients with mild or moderate asthma. It can be used in combination with corticosteroid therapy. However, it should not be used in acute asthma attacks. 18. Remifentanil is a short-acting and potent opioid drug, which is preferred for use by injection for intra-operative analgesia compared with pethidine and morphine because it acts within 1–2 minutes. Its short duration of action allows prolonged administration at high dosage without accumulation and with little risk of residual respiratory depression. 19. Griseofulvin and rifampicin are enzyme inducers. They can increase the rate of synthesis of cytochrome P450 enzymes, resulting in enhanced clearance of other drugs. When enzyme inducers are administered to patients receiving warfarin, a decreased effect of warfarin results. However, warfarin itself is not known to be an enzyme inducer. 20. Finasteride is an inhibitor of the enzyme 5-reductase, which is responsible for the metabolism of testosterone into the androgen dihydrotestosterone.Finasteride is used in benign prostatic hyperplasia and at a lower dose in male-pattern baldness. Important Pharmacology Points 21-30 21. Imipramine is a tricylic antidepressant and, as with all types of antidepressants, hyponatraemia may occur in older people. This is possibly due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. 22. Lidocaine is indicated for ventricular arrhythmias, especially after myocardial infarction, because it suppresses ventricular tachycardia and reduces the risk of ventricular fibrillation. 23. Trifluoperazine, a phenothiazine. It may cause pancytopenia, which includes agranulocytosis. Agranulocytosis is a condition resulting in a marked decrease in the number of granulocytes. 24. Piroxicam, which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that does not exhibit selectivity for cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition.Celecoxib, etoricoxib, meloxicam and Lumiracoxib are all selective inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase-2. 25. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which brings about a reduction in the formation of prostaglandins that occur in an inflammatory reaction. Ibuprofen achieves this action by reversibly inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes. It is a propionic acid derivative. 26. Zanamivir is an antiviral agent used in influenza because it reduces replication of influenza A and B viruses by inhibiting the viral enzyme neuraminidase.It normally reduces the duration of symptoms by around 1–1.5 days.Zanamivir is not licensed for prophylaxis of influenza. It is indicated for the treatment of influenza and should be started within 48 h of the first symptoms.It is

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Top 10 Best Pharmacology Books Every Student Should Know

Pharmacology has been said to be the cornerstone of modern pharmacy practice and is one of the most important Subjects for graduation as a medical professional. Simply put, It is the study of how drugs (Medicine) interact with living systems. Pharmacology includes the knowledge of history, Source, Physical and chemical properties, Compounding, Biochemical and Physiological effects, Mechanism of action, absorption, distribution metabolism, excretion, therapeutic and other uses. Finding the Best Pharmacology book is not an easy task as there are a lot of different books available on the market. For that purpose, we have compiled this list of the 10 best Pharmacology books to help you in your studies. Learn more about Pharmacology Definition and Its Branches. 10 Best Pharmacology Books There are various pharmacology books out there focusing on different parts of medicine. Some elaborate solely on general drug properties and common side effects. In comparison, others go for in-depth reviews exploring medication at the molecular level and their interaction with receptors, resulting in pharmacological actions. Following are some of the best Pharmacology Books. 1. Lippincott’s illustrated reviews This pharmacology Book helps you with the exam preparations. Everyone has reasons for selecting Lippincott’s pharmacology for consulting and exam preparations. A small share of students prefers not to consult this book. The best reasons are the excellent and tabulated information presentation. This is often ideal for many students with easy-to-understand and memorized mechanisms of actions and tabulated comparison. The most effective part is that almost every section is given in a concise approach that students love. Also, side effects are shown with attention-grabbing graphics that are remembered without the need for cramming. 2. Katzung basic and clinical pharmacology This is often the in-depth review of the drug about body systems. One of the top Pharmacology books ever written. I like how the authors explain & diagram different topics in the book. Makes learning easy. Katzung pharmacology provides a current, authoritative, comprehensive pharmacology book for medical, pharmacy, and other health science students. Read our post about the Psychopharmacology 3. Goodman Gillman’s manual of pharmacology & therapeutics. This book mentions all medications with full details of molecular structures, MOA, side effects, drug interactions, etc. This book is meant for anybody curious enough to like pharmacology; he should go for it. All medications are mentioned with full details of molecular structure, MOA, side effects, drug interactions, and a lot more with visual graphics. Further, all body systems with different drug profiles are the most exciting part starting from ANS, CNS, CVS, GIT, excretory, endocrine, and respiratory systems. 4. Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology Rang & Dale Provides you with all the information you wish to induce through your pharmacology course and beyond. A straightforward way to master a fancy subject! This bestselling textbook presents the information you want to urge through your pharmacology course and beyond using a clear and accessible approach. 5. Essentials Of Medical pharmacology By KD Tripathi This Book is one of the best pharmacology Books; however, It’s very important for antibiotics section. This is a must-have book if you want to learn Antibiotics. 6. Pharmacology and the Nursing Process, 7e- (Lilley, Pharmacology and the Nursing Process) Standalone book This pharmacology for nurses book explains one of the most challenging courses. The user-friendly color format guarantees students the motivation to read and understand. It provides detailed and easy-to-understand topics in nursing and pharmacology. Safe medication administration is one of the most publicized areas. The nursing process and the prioritization of assessments is another priority. In addition, this book’s diagnosis, interventions, and criticisms are apparent. This is one of the few books that provides up-to-date information on drugs and safety skills. 7. Study Guide for Pharmacology: A Patient-Centered Nursing-Process Approach This practical study guide helps the reader review and retrieve important pharmacological information. It is one of the best pharmacology for nurses and other professionals. The exercise includes attractive study questions, a review, and a case study. This new edition includes questions in the form of elements, questions to complete, multiple answers, and questions with ordered answers. It offers the student only a clinical and pharmacological justification. In addition, the book’s central chapter is on drug calculation, which helps students demonstrate their ability to calculate and administer the dose of the medication. 8. Focus on Nursing Pharmacology, Seventh-North American Edition This is the seventh edition of Amy M. Karch RN MS. It is well organized with beautiful illustrations to introduce new medical students to the basics of pharmacology. Nursing processes are presented that highlight care planning based on a patient-centered approach. In addition, it includes a total of 52 new drugs and 11 classes of drugs that have emerged in the recent past. It also provides advanced critical thinking scenarios that help all students understand assessment, data collection, and accurate application in clinical situations. These features make it one of the pharmacology for nurses. 9. Essentials Of pharmacology By Shah Nawaz This Book Is Best For Board Review Exams and alternative exams As its a bit simple and Short. This Book is according to the recent developments in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics. 10. Pharmacology Made Incredibly Easy by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins This is the best pharmacology book for you because it represents everything you need to know as easily as possible. The book contains information in an easy-to-follow guide to a successful pharmacological process. It includes basic information about how drugs are classified, derived, and developed. Using nursing joy and jake’s characters, readers can easily understand complex illustrations. It also allows quick reading for students taking exams. Thanks to the fast scan format with short and dotted dots. With hundreds of charts and illustrations, this pharmacology book provides a concise format for drug administration, distribution, absorption, and metabolism. In this way, the nurse can gradually connect the drugs with appropriate diagnostic procedures for various diseases. Bottom Line—Best Pharmacology Books The above-discussed Pharmacology books are some of the most trusted sources for this subject. However, if you are looking for the best

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Pharmacology MCQ’s With Answers

Q 1. As An Antiepileptic drug, Phenytoin is most similar in action to which one of the following drugs? (A)Digoxin (B)Propafenone (C)Lidocaine (D)Sotalol (E)Verapamil Answer: C (Lidocaine) Explanations: Phenytoin and lidocaine are Both similar in action both are class IB Antiarrhythmic agents.These drugs slightly depress phase 0 and may shorten the duration of the action potential.They are most commonly used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmia. Q2.How does Clonidine, An Antihypertensive drug, Work? (A)Block Alpha 1 Adrenergic Receptors (B)Stimulate Alpha 2 Adrenergic Receptors In The Brain. (C)Increase heart rate due to stimulation of SA Node (D)Block Beta Adrenoceptors. Answer: B (Stimulate alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in the brain) Explanation: Clonidine stimulates the alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in the vasomotor center of the brain, leading to decrease in activity of sympathetic nerves to the peripheral tissues.Inhibition of the sympathetic nerves to the heart will lead to decrease in the cardiac output, and inhibition of the sympathetic nerves to the blood vessels will cause vasodilation.both of these effects will cause fall in the blood pressure. Q.3 Phentolamine is a (an) (A)Alpha 1 adrenergic antagonist (B)Beta 2 adrenergic antagonist (C)Both alpha 1+2  Antagonist (D)Mainly Alpha 2 adrenergic antagonist. Answer: C (Both alpha 1+2 Antagonist Explanation: Phentolamine blocks both alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors equally.Phentolamine blocks the alpha receptors for a short period of time and its blocking effect on the alpha receptors is reversible. Note: We Will Upload More Such Questions, Keep Visiting DrugsBank

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Top 20 General Pharmacology Questions Every Student Should Know

Pharmacology is one of the most important subject in the Pharmacy profession as well as in medical field. Pharmacology is the corner stone of the modern pharmacy. Here is a list of important General Pharmacology Questions which every pharmacy and medical students should know. Top 20 General Pharmacology Questions Q.1  What is Pharmacology? Ans: Pharmacology is a branch of science that deals with the interaction of drugs with living organisms. Or The study of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. Q.2 What is a Drug? Ans: A drug is any chemical entity that causes a change in biological function in a living organism.some drugs are formed inside the body such as insulin and noradrenaline etc.drugs that are introduced into the body from outside are called Xenobiotics. Q.3 What Is a Dose? Ans: A Specific Amount of Drug Prescribed to be taken at one time. Q.4 What Is Blood Brain Barrier? It is A Tight Endothelial Cells Of the Brain Capillaries And Glial Cells Of The Brain Around The blood capillaries that doesn’t allow the passage of certain lipid insoluble substances to pass from the blood into the brain.Lipid Soluble Drugs can easily Cross This Barrier.Examples Of Lipid soluble Drugs are; Diazepam, Thiopental, And Phenobarbitol. Q.5 What is Volume Of Distribution? Ans: The total Volume Of The Body Fluid in which a drug appears to be distributed according to its concentration in the blood or plasma.VD of a drug can be determined by the following Formula, VD (Volume OF Distribution) =Total Amount OF Drug In the Body/Concentration of drug in the blood plasma. Q.6 What Is Potency? Ans: It is the weight of the drug that produces a certain magnitude of response.For Example Lesser the weight of drug required to produce a given effect, more its potency.Also More the weight of the drug required to produce the same effect lesser its potency.e.g Clonidine Produce its antihypertensive effect in 0.2-0.3mg Daily Dose.While Antihypertensive dose of methyldopa is 500-2000mg Per Day.Thus Clonidine IS more Potent than methyldopa. Q.7 What Is Efficacy? Ans:If the dose of a drug is increased its effect will be increased proportionately, until a stage is reached beyond there is no further increase in effect will occur,even if a large dose of drug is given.thix maximum effect of drug beyond which no further increase in its effect occurs even if the dose of the drug is increased to a large amount is called efficacy or maximal efficacy.example morphine has more efficacy than aspirin as an analgesic .morphine is more effective in the severe type of pains while aspirin is effective in mild to moderate pain. Q.8 What is Therapeutic index? The ratio between median toxic dose (TD50) and median effective dose (ED50) is called therapeutic index. Therapeutic index= TD50/ED50 Q.9 What is idiosyncrasy? It is a rare type of response to a drug that is not related to its dose, that is, even a small dose can cause it.For example.A rare adverse effect with chloramphenicol is aplastic anemia. Q.10 What is Hypersensitivity? An allergic or immunological response to a drug .for example anaphylactic shock with penicillin is a severe type of hypersensitivity reaction. Q.11 What is Tolerance? Ans: Repeated use of a drug causes a gradual decrease in the response to the drug.e.g chronic use of morphine will decrease many of its effects in the body, therefore the dose of the drug has to be increased with the passage of time to maintain the usual effects of the drug. Q.12 What is a Receptor? Ans: Receptor is a macromolecule (Big molecule).Most of the receptors are protein in nature.mostly those drugs that act on the cells bind to the receptors.Those drugs which bind to the receptor and show their effect are called agonists.While some drugs bind to the receptor but don’t produce an effect.These drugs are known as an antagonist as they prevent the binding of agonists with the receptors. Q.14 What is the adverse drug reaction? Drugs may produce two types of effect i.e Useful effects and harmful effects.harmful effects are also known as adverse drug reaction or undesired effects.These effects may range from the mild type of adverse effect to severe effects that may cause a death of the person. Adverse drug reaction may be classified into the following types; Idiosyncrasy Drug allergy Direct toxic effect Drug dependence Tolerance Q.15 What is Shock? It is a clinical condition in which there is an inadequate supply of blood to causes hypotension, oliguria, and metabolic acidosis.Following are the common types of shock: A. Hypovolemic shock B. Septic shock C. Cardiogenic shock D. Anaphylactic shock Q.16 What is Drug Clearance? Ans: It Can be defined as Volume Of blood or plasma cleared of the drug in a unit period of time.Thus, to determine clearance we have to find that volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is removed during a unit period of time.By removal of drug we mean metabolism and excretion of drug.if we know the clearance of a drug we can adjust its dose properly.clearance of the drug can be determined by the following formula. Cl: Rate of elimination/Concentration of drug in the blood Where is Cl is clearance? Q.17 What is Drug Excretion? Ans: Removal of drugs from the body is known as their excretion.Drugs are excreted from the body either in the form of their metabolites or in unchanged form.Excretion can occur from the following routes; A) Faecal B) Renal C) Biliary D)Pulmonary E)Others like to sweat, saliva, milk etc Q.18 What is Toxicology? It is an aspect of pharmacology that deals with the adverse effects of drugs on living organisms .in addition to drugs used in therapy, it also deals with many other chemicals that may be responsible for the household, environmental, or industrial intoxication. Q.19 What is antidote? Ans: Antidotes are Any Substance which Is Used To oppose the effects of poisons without causing any damage to The body. Example antidote for benzodiazepine is flumazenil. Q.20 What is Bioavailability? It can be defined as a fraction of unmodified drug

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